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1.
Vaccines ; 10(9):1429, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2006263

ABSTRACT

The vaccination rate against COVID-19 remains low in developing countries due to vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine hesitancy is a public health threat in curbing COVID-19 pandemic globally. Healthcare professionals have been found to play a critical role in vaccine advocacy and promotion campaigns in the general population. A cross sectional study was conducted in the initial months of the COVID-19 vaccination roll out program in Tanzania to determine the acceptance rate, perceived barriers, and cues for actions. A total of 811 healthcare professionals participated from 26 health facilities in western Tanzania. The World Health Organization (WHO) vaccine acceptance questionnaire was adopted with minor modifications to capture the local contexts and used in data collection. Only (18.5%) healthcare professionals had received a COVID-19 vaccine and acceptance rate was 29%. The majority (62%) of participants were in the hesitancy stage due to issues related to lack of effective communication and reliable information regarding efficacy and safety. In this era of COVID-19 pandemic, there is a need to engage and involve public health figures and opinion leaders through transparent dialogue to clarify vaccine-related safety, quality, and efficacy. These strategies will reduce misconception, mistrust, and improve uptake among healthcare professionals and eventually in the general population.

2.
Pathogens ; 11(3)2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765802

ABSTRACT

Colonization of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria is associated with subsequent invasive infections in children with comorbidities. This study aimed to determine the resistance profile and factors associated with MDR pathogen colonization among HIV-and HIV+ children below five years of age in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total of 399 (HIV- 255 and HIV+ 144) children were enrolled and investigated for the presence of MDR bacteria. The median [IQR] age of children was 19 (10-36) months. Out of 27 Staphylococcus aureus colonizing the nasal cavity, 16 (59.5%) were methicillin resistant while 132/278 (47.2%) of Enterobacteriaceae from rectal swabs were resistant to third generation cephalosporins, with 69.7% (92/132) exhibiting extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes. The proportion of resistance to gentamicin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and meropenem were significantly higher among HIV+ than HIV- children. A history of antibiotic use in the last month OR 2.62 [1.1, 6.9] (p = 0.04) and history of a relative admitted from the same household in the past three months OR 3.73 [1.1, 13.2] (p = 0.03) independently predicted ESBL rectal colonization. HIV+ children had significantly more fecal carriage of isolates resistant to uncommonly used antibiotics. There is a need to strengthen antimicrobial stewardship and Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) programs to prevent the emergence and spread of MDR pathogens in children.

3.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 34, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current Coronavirus disease pandemic reveals political and structural inequities of the world's poorest people who have little or no access to health care and yet the largest burdens of poor health. This is in parallel to a more persistent but silent global health crisis, antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We explore the fundamental challenges of health care in humans and animals in relation to AMR in Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted 57 individual interviews and focus groups with providers and patients in high, middle and lower tier health care facilities and communities across three regions of Tanzania between April 2019 and February 2020. We covered topics from health infrastructure and prescribing practices to health communication and patient experiences. RESULTS: Three interconnected themes emerged about systemic issues impacting health. First, there are challenges around infrastructure and availability of vital resources such as healthcare staff and supplies. Second, health outcomes are predicated on patient and provider access to services as well as social determinants of health. Third, health communication is critical in defining trusted sources of information, and narratives of blame emerge around health outcomes with the onus of responsibility for action falling on individuals. CONCLUSION: Entanglements between infrastructure, access and communication exist while constraints in the health system lead to poor health outcomes even in 'normal' circumstances. These are likely to be relevant across the globe and highly topical for addressing pressing global health challenges. Redressing structural health inequities can better equip countries and their citizens to not only face pandemics but also day-to-day health challenges.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility/standards , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/standards , Social Determinants of Health/standards , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health/standards , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/economics , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Tanzania/epidemiology
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046125, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376488

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, remains a cause of preventable disability. Early detection, treatment and prevention are key to reducing transmission. Post-exposure prophylaxis with single-dose rifampicin (SDR-PEP) reduces the risk of developing leprosy when administered to screened contacts of patients. This has been adopted in the WHO leprosy guidelines. The PEP4LEP study aims to determine the most effective and feasible method of screening people at risk of developing leprosy and administering chemoprophylaxis to contribute to interrupting transmission. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PEP4LEP is a cluster-randomised implementation trial comparing two interventions of integrated skin screening combined with SDR-PEP distribution to contacts of patients with leprosy in Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania. One intervention is community-based, using skin camps to screen approximately 100 community contacts per leprosy patient, and to administer SDR-PEP when eligible. The other intervention is health centre-based, inviting household contacts of leprosy patients to be screened in a local health centre and subsequently receive SDR-PEP when eligible. The mobile health (mHealth) tool SkinApp will support health workers' capacity in integrated skin screening. The effectiveness of both interventions will be compared by assessing the rate of patients with leprosy detected and case detection delay in months, as well as feasibility in terms of cost-effectiveness and acceptability. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the national ethical committees of Ethiopia (MoSHE), Mozambique (CNBS) and Tanzania (NIMR/MoHCDEC). Study results will be published open access in peer-reviewed journals, providing evidence for the implementation of innovative leprosy screening methods and chemoprophylaxis to policymakers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NL7294 (NTR7503).


Subject(s)
Leprosy , Ethiopia , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Leprosy/diagnosis , Leprosy/drug therapy , Leprosy/prevention & control , Mozambique , Tanzania
5.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 1733-1745, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The dual burden of road traffic accidents and antimicrobial resistance in orthopaedic infections is challenging already strained health-care systems. Limited information exists in Tanzania on antimicrobial resistance surveillance to delineate the potential sources of multi-drug-resistant bacteria for specific mitigation strategies among orthopaedic patients. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza city between January and May 2020. It involved the collection of rectal swabs/stools, hand swabs, and environmental sampling to identify extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing gram-negative bacteria. Participants' data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analysed to determine factors associated with ESBL colonization among index orthopaedic patients and correlates with other ESBL sources using OR (95% CI) and a cut-off p-value of ≤0.05. RESULTS: We found that 47.2% (125/265) of index patients, 77.8% (14/18) of neighbouring patients, 8.3% (2/24) of health-care workers, 72.2% (13/18) of non-medical caregivers, and 31.4% (27/86) of samples taken from the hospital environment had ESBL producers. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. predominated among participants and Acinetobacter spp. predominated in the environmental samples. Patients with open fractures had increased odds of being colonized with ESBL producers [OR (95% CI): 2.08 (1.16-3.75); p=0.015]. The floor below patients' beds was commonly contaminated; however, the odds of environmental contamination decreased on the third round of sampling [OR (95% CI: 0.16 (0.04-0.67); p=0.012], apparently as a result of parallel infection prevention and control responsive measures against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). CONCLUSION: We found a high occurrence of ESBL colonization among participants and in the environmentat this tertiary hospital. The importance of routine ESBL surveillance among orthopaedic patients with open fractures on admission and strengthened decontamination of health-care premises is reiterated.

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