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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) have been reported to have a higher risk of more severe Covid-19 disease and death. We assessed the ability of the Ad26.CoV2.S vaccine to elicit neutralizing activity against the Delta variant in PLWH relative to HIV-negative individuals. We also examined effects of HIV status and suppression on Delta neutralization response in SARS-CoV-2 infected unvaccinated participants. METHODS: We enrolled participants who vaccinated through the SISONKE South African clinical trial of the Ad26.CoV2.S vaccine in health care workers (HCW). PLWH in this group had well controlled HIV infection. We also enrolled unvaccinated participants previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. Neutralization capacity was assessed by a live virus neutralization assay of the Delta variant. RESULTS: Majority of Ad26.CoV2.S vaccinated HCW were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. In this group, Delta variant neutralization was 9-fold higher compared to the infected only group and 26-fold higher relative to the vaccinated only group. No decrease in Delta variant neutralization was observed in PLWH relative to HIV-negative participants. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 infected, unvaccinated PLWH showed 7-fold lower neutralization and a higher frequency of non-responders, with the highest frequency of non-responders in people with HIV viremia. Vaccinated only participants showed low neutralization capacity. CONCLUSIONS: The neutralization response of the Delta variant following Ad26.CoV2.S vaccination in PLWH with well controlled HIV was not inferior to HIV-negative participants, irrespective of past SARS-CoV-2 infection. In SARS-CoV-2 infected and non-vaccinated participants, HIV infection reduced the neutralization response to SARS-CoV-2, with the strongest reduction in HIV viremic individuals.

2.
Nature ; 607(7918): 356-359, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830078

ABSTRACT

The extent to which Omicron infection1-9, with or without previous vaccination, elicits protection against the previously dominant Delta (B.1.617.2) variant is unclear. Here we measured the neutralization capacity against variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in 39 individuals in South Africa infected with the Omicron sublineage BA.1 starting at a median of 6 (interquartile range 3-9) days post symptom onset and continuing until last follow-up sample available, a median of 23 (interquartile range 19-27) days post symptoms to allow BA.1-elicited neutralizing immunity time to develop. Fifteen participants were vaccinated with Pfizer's BNT162b2 or Johnson & Johnson's Ad26.CoV2.S and had BA.1 breakthrough infections, and 24 were unvaccinated. BA.1 neutralization increased from a geometric mean 50% focus reduction neutralization test titre of 42 at enrolment to 575 at the last follow-up time point (13.6-fold) in vaccinated participants and from 46 to 272 (6.0-fold) in unvaccinated participants. Delta virus neutralization also increased, from 192 to 1,091 (5.7-fold) in vaccinated participants and from 28 to 91 (3.0-fold) in unvaccinated participants. At the last time point, unvaccinated individuals infected with BA.1 had low absolute levels of neutralization for the non-BA.1 viruses and 2.2-fold lower BA.1 neutralization, 12.0-fold lower Delta neutralization, 9.6-fold lower Beta variant neutralization, 17.9-fold lower ancestral virus neutralization and 4.8-fold lower Omicron sublineage BA.2 neutralization relative to vaccinated individuals infected with BA.1. These results indicate that hybrid immunity formed by vaccination and Omicron BA.1 infection should be protective against Delta and other variants. By contrast, infection with Omicron BA.1 alone offers limited cross-protection despite moderate enhancement.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Ad26COVS1/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cross Protection/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(2): 154-162.e5, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708092

ABSTRACT

Characterizing SARS-CoV-2 evolution in specific geographies may help predict properties of the variants that come from these regions. We mapped neutralization of a SARS-CoV-2 strain that evolved over 6 months from ancestral virus in a person with advanced HIV disease in South Africa; this person was infected prior to emergence of the Beta and Delta variants. We longitudinally tracked the evolved virus and tested it against self-plasma and convalescent plasma from ancestral, Beta, and Delta infections. Early virus was similar to ancestral, but it evolved a multitude of mutations found in Omicron and other variants. It showed substantial but incomplete Pfizer BNT162b2 escape, weak neutralization by self-plasma, and despite pre-dating Delta, it also showed extensive escape of Delta infection-elicited neutralization. This example is consistent with the notion that SARS-CoV-2 evolving in individual immune-compromised hosts, including those with advanced HIV disease, may gain immune escape of vaccines and enhanced escape of Delta immunity, and this has implications for vaccine breakthrough and reinfections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , HIV Infections/pathology , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , South Africa , Vaccination , Vero Cells
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) have been reported to have a higher risk of more severe Covid-19 disease and death. We assessed the ability of the Ad26.CoV2.S vaccine to elicit neutralizing activity against the Delta variant in PLWH relative to HIV-negative individuals. We also examined effects of HIV status and suppression on Delta neutralization response in SARS-CoV-2 infected unvaccinated participants. METHODS: We enrolled participants who vaccinated through the SISONKE South African clinical trial of the Ad26.CoV2.S vaccine in health care workers (HCW). PLWH in this group had well controlled HIV infection. We also enrolled unvaccinated participants previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. Neutralization capacity was assessed by a live virus neutralization assay of the Delta variant. RESULTS: Majority of Ad26.CoV2.S vaccinated HCW were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. In this group, Delta variant neutralization was 9-fold higher compared to the infected only group and 26-fold higher relative to the vaccinated only group. No decrease in Delta variant neutralization was observed in PLWH relative to HIV-negative participants. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 infected, unvaccinated PLWH showed 7-fold lower neutralization and a higher frequency of non-responders, with the highest frequency of non-responders in people with HIV viremia. Vaccinated only participants showed low neutralization capacity. CONCLUSIONS: The neutralization response of the Delta variant following Ad26.CoV2.S vaccination in PLWH with well controlled HIV was not inferior to HIV-negative participants, irrespective of past SARS-CoV-2 infection. In SARS-CoV-2 infected and non-vaccinated participants, HIV infection reduced the neutralization response to SARS-CoV-2, with the strongest reduction in HIV viremic individuals.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295139

ABSTRACT

Summary Background People living with HIV (PLWH) have been reported to have an increased risk of more severe COVID-19 disease outcome and an increased risk of death relative to HIV-uninfected individuals. Here we assessed the ability of the Johnson and Johnson Ad26.CoV2.S vaccine to elicit neutralizing antibodies to the Delta variant in PLWH relative to HIV-uninfected individuals. We also compared the neutralization after vaccination to neutralization elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection only in HIV-uninfected, suppressed HIV PLWH, and PLWH with detectable HIV viremia. Methods We enrolled 26 PLWH and 73 HIV-uninfected participants from the SISONKE phase 3b open label South African clinical trial of the Ad26.CoV2.S vaccine in health care workers (HCW). Enrollment was a median 56 days (range 19-98 days) post-vaccination and PLWH in this group had well controlled HIV infection. We also enrolled unvaccinated participants previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. This group consisted of 34 PLWH and 28 HIV-uninfected individuals. 10 of the 34 (29%) SARS-CoV-2 infected only PLWH had detectable HIV viremia. We used records of a positive SARS-CoV-2 qPCR result, or when a positive result was absent, testing for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies, to determine which vaccinated participants were SARS-CoV-2 infected prior to vaccination. Neutralization capacity was assessed using participant plasma in a live virus neutralization assay of the Delta SARS-CoV-2 variant currently dominating infections in South Africa. This study was approved by the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee at the University of KwaZulu–Natal (reference BREC/00001275/2020). Findings The majority (68%) of Ad26.CoV2.S vaccinated HCW were found to be previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. In this group, Delta variant neutralization was 9-fold higher compared to the infected only group (GMT=306 versus 36, p<0.0001) and 26-fold higher relative to the vaccinated only group (GMT=12, p<0.0001). No significant difference in Delta variant neutralization capacity was observed in vaccinated and previously SARS-CoV-2 infected PLWH relative to vaccinated and previously SARS-CoV-2 infected, HIV-uninfected participants (GMT=307 for HIV-uninfected, 300 for PLWH, p=0.95). SARS-CoV-2 infected, unvaccinated PLWH showed 7-fold reduced neutralization of the Delta variant relative to HIV-uninfected participants (GMT=105 for HIV-uninfected, 15 for PLWH, p=0.001). There was a higher frequency of non-responders in PLWH relative to HIV-uninfected participants in the SARS-CoV-2 infected unvaccinated group (27% versus 0%, p=0.0029) and 60% of HIV viremic versus 13% of HIV suppressed PLWH were non-responders (p=0.0088). In contrast, the frequency of non-responders was low in the vaccinated/infected group, and similar between HIV-uninfected and PLWH. Vaccinated only participants showed a low neutralization of the Delta variant, with a stronger response in PLWH (GMT=6 for HIV-uninfected, 73 for PLWH, p=0.02). Interpretation The neutralization response of the Delta variant following Ad26.CoV2.S vaccination in PLWH with well controlled HIV was not inferior to HIV-uninfected study participants. In SARS-CoV-2 infected and non-vaccinated participants, the presence of HIV infection reduced the neutralization response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and this effect was strongest in PLWH with detectable HIV viremia Funding South African Medical Research Council, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

6.
Elife ; 102021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450948

ABSTRACT

There are conflicting reports on the effects of HIV on COVID-19. Here, we analyzed disease severity and immune cell changes during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection in 236 participants from South Africa, of which 39% were people living with HIV (PLWH), during the first and second (Beta dominated) infection waves. The second wave had more PLWH requiring supplemental oxygen relative to HIV-negative participants. Higher disease severity was associated with low CD4 T cell counts and higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios (NLR). Yet, CD4 counts recovered and NLR stabilized after SARS-CoV-2 clearance in wave 2 infected PLWH, arguing for an interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and HIV infection leading to low CD4 and high NLR. The first infection wave, where severity in HIV negative and PLWH was similar, still showed some HIV modulation of SARS-CoV-2 immune responses. Therefore, HIV infection can synergize with the SARS-CoV-2 variant to change COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa
7.
JCI Insight ; 6(16)2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369457

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infects epithelial cells of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and causes related symptoms. HIV infection impairs gut homeostasis and is associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 fatality. To investigate the potential link between these observations, we analyzed single-cell transcriptional profiles and SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor expression across lymphoid and mucosal human tissue from chronically HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. Absorptive gut enterocytes displayed the highest coexpression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors ACE2, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS4, of which ACE2 expression was associated with canonical interferon response and antiviral genes. Chronic treated HIV infection was associated with a clear antiviral response in gut enterocytes and, unexpectedly, with a substantial reduction of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 target cells. Gut tissue from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, however, showed abundant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in both the large and small intestine, including an HIV-coinfected individual. Thus, upregulation of antiviral response genes and downregulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the GI tract of HIV-infected individuals does not prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in this compartment. The impact of these HIV-associated intestinal mucosal changes on SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics, disease severity, and vaccine responses remains unclear and requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , HIV Infections/virology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/analysis , Adult , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/chemistry , Male , Middle Aged
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