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The New Microbiologica ; 43(4):161, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1136736


We describe the outcome of a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG/IgM rapid test, and discuss the potential suitability of antibody testing. Retrospective single cohort study on patients with suspected Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and asymptomatic Healthcare Workers, enrolled from March to April 2020. Subjects had quantitative PCR (qPCR) test for detection of SARS-CoV-2 via nasal swab and serological testing using the COVID-19 IgG/ IgM Rapid Test (PRIMA Lab SA) immunochromatographic assay. Some subjects underwent chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) after rapid test. The aim of the study was to analyse the proportion of those who developed a positive IgM/IgG response for SARS-CoV-2. The correspondence between the results from rapid testing and CLIA, when available, was evaluated. 97 subjects underwent qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 through nasal swab, which resulted positive in 40/43 (93.0%) of symptomatic patients, 2/40 (5%) of asymptomatic HCW, in no subjects with suspected COVID-19 (clinical and radiological findings) then excluded by repeated nasal swabs and alternative diagnosis (COVID-19-negative patients, CNPs), and in 6/6 (100%) of patients with confirmed diagnosis and negative follow-up nasal swabs (COVID-19-recovered patients, CRPs). IgM resulted positive in 8/43 (18.6%) of symptomatic patients and in 1/6 (16.7%) of CRPs. IgG resulted positive in 36/43 (83.7%) of symptomatic patients, 2/40 (5%) of HCW, and in 1/8 (12.5%) and 6/6 (100%) of CNPs and CRPs, respectively. A comparison between an IgG/IgM Rapid Test and a following CLIA test showed consistency in negative results in 25/28 of HCW and 8/8 of CNPs tested. Our preliminary data support the role of IgG/IgM Rapid Test (PRIMA Lab SA) immunochromatographic assay as a point-of-care test that may complement molecular tests in the screening of SARS-CoV-2 carriers. The test may gain particular relevance in shortening the time needed to refer patients to a COVID or non-COVID Hospital area and to achieve diagnosis in patients with persistently negative nasal swabs.

Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(3): 451-457, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938846


OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to describe the incidence and predictive factors of secondary infections in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital between 25th February and 6th April 2020 (NCT04318366). We considered secondary bloodstream infections (BSIs) or possible lower respiratory tract infections (pLRTIs) occurring 48 hours after hospital admission until death or discharge. We calculated multivariable Fine-Gray models to assess factors associated with risk of secondary infections. RESULTS: Among 731 patients, a secondary infection was diagnosed in 68 patients (9.3%); 58/731 patients (7.9%) had at least one BSI and 22/731 patients (3.0%) at least one pLRTI. The overall 28-day cumulative incidence was 16.4% (95%CI 12.4-21.0%). Most of the BSIs were due to Gram-positive pathogens (76/106 isolates, 71.7%), specifically coagulase-negative staphylococci (53/76, 69.7%), while among Gram-negatives (23/106, 21.7%) Acinetobacter baumanii (7/23, 30.4%) and Escherichia coli (5/23, 21.7%) predominated. pLRTIs were caused mainly by Gram-negative pathogens (14/26, 53.8%). Eleven patients were diagnosed with putative invasive aspergillosis. At multivariable analysis, factors associated with secondary infections were low baseline lymphocyte count (≤0.7 versus >0.7 per 109/L, subdistribution hazard ratios (sdHRs) 1.93, 95%CI 1.11-3.35), baseline PaO2/FiO2 (per 100 points lower: sdHRs 1.56, 95%CI 1.21-2.04), and intensive-care unit (ICU) admission in the first 48 hours (sdHR 2.51, 95%CI 1.04-6.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 had a high incidence of secondary infections. At multivariable analysis, early need for ICU, respiratory failure, and severe lymphopenia were identified as risk factors for secondary infections.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/microbiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/microbiology