Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Filter
1.
J Clin Microbiol ; 2020 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760221

ABSTRACT

The development of neutralizing antibodies (nAb) against SARS-CoV-2, following infection or vaccination, is likely to be critical for the development of sufficient population immunity to drive cessation of the COVID19 pandemic. A large number of serologic tests, platforms and methodologies are being employed to determine seroprevalence in populations to select convalescent plasmas for therapeutic trials, and to guide policies about reopening. However, tests have substantial variability in sensitivity and specificity, and their ability to quantitatively predict levels of nAb is unknown. We collected 370 unique donors enrolled in the New York Blood Center Convalescent Plasma Program between April and May of 2020. We measured levels of antibodies in convalescent plasma using commercially available SARS-CoV-2 detection tests and in-house ELISA assays and correlated serological measurements with nAb activity measured using pseudotyped virus particles, which offer the most informative assessment of antiviral activity of patient sera against viral infection. Our data show that a large proportion of convalescent plasma samples have modest antibody levels and that commercially available tests have varying degrees of accuracy in predicting nAb activity. We found the Ortho Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total Ig and IgG high throughput serological assays (HTSAs), as well as the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay, quantify levels of antibodies that strongly correlate with nAb assays and are consistent with gold-standard ELISA assay results. These findings provide immediate clinical relevance to serology results that can be equated to nAb activity and could serve as a valuable 'roadmap' to guide the choice and interpretation of serological tests for SARS-CoV-2.

2.
medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-721080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate longitudinal trajectory of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies and the performance of serological assays in diagnosing prior infection and predicting serum neutralisation titres with time Design Retrospective longitudinal analysis of a COVID19 case cohort Setting NHS outpatient clinics Participants Individuals with RT-PCR diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection that did not require hospitalization Main outcome measures The sensitivity with which prior infection was detected and quantitative antibody titres were assessed using four SARS-CoV-2 serologic assay platforms Two platforms employed SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) based antigens and two employed nucleocapsid (N) based antigens Serum neutralising antibody titres were measured using a validated pseudotyped virus SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation assay The ability of the serological assays to predict neutralisation titres at various times after PCR diagnosis was assessed Results The three of the four serological assays had sensitivities of 95 to100% at 21-40 days post PCR-diagnosis, while a fourth assay had a lower sensitivity of 85% The relative sensitivities of the assays changed with time and the sensitivity of one assay that had an initial sensitivity of >95% declined to 85% at 61-80 post PCR diagnosis, and to 71% at 81-100 days post diagnosis Median antibody titres decreased in one serologic assay but were maintained over the observation period in other assays The trajectories of median antibody titres measured in serologic assays over this time period were not dependent on whether the SARS-CoV-2 N or S proteins were used as antigen source A broad range of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising titres were evident in individual sera, that decreased over time in the majority of participants;the median neutralisation titre in the cohort decreased by 45% over 4 weeks Each of the serological assays gave quantitative measurements of antibody titres that correlated with SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation titres, but, the S-based serological assay measurements better predicted serum neutralisation potency The strength of correlation between serologic assay results and neutralisation titres deteriorated with time and decreases in neutralisation titres in individual participants were not well predicted by changes in antibody titres measured using serologic assays CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays differed in their comparative diagnostic performance over time Different assays are more or less well suited for surveillance of populations for prior infection versus prediction of serum neutralisation potency Continued monitoring of declining neutralisation titres during extended follow up should facilitate the establishment of appropriate serologic correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection

3.
J Exp Med ; 217(11)2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697830

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the ensuing explosive epidemic of COVID-19 disease has generated a need for assays to rapidly and conveniently measure the antiviral activity of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Here, we describe a collection of approaches based on SARS-CoV-2 spike-pseudotyped, single-cycle, replication-defective human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), as well as a replication-competent VSV/SARS-CoV-2 chimeric virus. While each surrogate virus exhibited subtle differences in the sensitivity with which neutralizing activity was detected, the neutralizing activity of both convalescent plasma and human monoclonal antibodies measured using each virus correlated quantitatively with neutralizing activity measured using an authentic SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay. The assays described herein are adaptable to high throughput and are useful tools in the evaluation of serologic immunity conferred by vaccination or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the potency of convalescent plasma or human monoclonal antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Cell Line , Chimera/genetics , Chimera/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recombination, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology
4.
Cell ; 182(4): 828-842.e16, 2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612079

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody responses to coronaviruses mainly target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the trimeric spike. Here, we characterized polyclonal immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) and Fabs from COVID-19 convalescent individuals for recognition of coronavirus spikes. Plasma IgGs differed in their focus on RBD epitopes, recognition of alpha- and beta-coronaviruses, and contributions of avidity to increased binding/neutralization of IgGs over Fabs. Using electron microscopy, we examined specificities of polyclonal plasma Fabs, revealing recognition of both S1A and RBD epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 spike. Moreover, a 3.4 Å cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a neutralizing monoclonal Fab-spike complex revealed an epitope that blocks ACE2 receptor binding. Modeling based on these structures suggested different potentials for inter-spike crosslinking by IgGs on viruses, and characterized IgGs would not be affected by identified SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations. Overall, our studies structurally define a recurrent anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody class derived from VH3-53/VH3-66 and similarity to a SARS-CoV VH3-30 antibody, providing criteria for evaluating vaccine-elicited antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross Reactions , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/blood , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/ultrastructure , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin G/ultrastructure , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/chemistry , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
Nature ; 584(7821): 437-442, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-606946

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the infection of millions of people and has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. The entry of the virus into cells depends on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. Although there is currently no vaccine, it is likely that antibodies will be essential for protection. However, little is known about the human antibody response to SARS-CoV-21-5. Here we report on 149 COVID-19-convalescent individuals. Plasma samples collected an average of 39 days after the onset of symptoms had variable half-maximal pseudovirus neutralizing titres; titres were less than 50 in 33% of samples, below 1,000 in 79% of samples and only 1% of samples had titres above 5,000. Antibody sequencing revealed the expansion of clones of RBD-specific memory B cells that expressed closely related antibodies in different individuals. Despite low plasma titres, antibodies to three distinct epitopes on the RBD neutralized the virus with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) as low as 2 ng ml-1. In conclusion, most convalescent plasma samples obtained from individuals who recover from COVID-19 do not contain high levels of neutralizing activity. Nevertheless, rare but recurring RBD-specific antibodies with potent antiviral activity were found in all individuals tested, suggesting that a vaccine designed to elicit such antibodies could be broadly effective.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibody Specificity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL