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1.
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology ; : 111173, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821288

ABSTRACT

Objective To develop an olfactory test that can be conducted by an untrained person using common household items and to introduce a German version of the Chemosensory Pleasure Scale for Children (CPS–C(de)). Methodology This olfactory home test was developed in phases including evaluation of odors for suitability in a home setting. Parents of 50 children (ages 6–17) were then equipped with instruction manuals and participants were tested twice in a cross-over design. A validated pediatric olfactory test (the Universal Sniff test (U-Sniff)) served as the comparative gold standard. Additionally, a Chinese-English-German “back-and-forth” translation was conducted to establish the CPS-C(de) and was tested for empirical validity. Results Fourteen items were tested for feasibility, and all were identified on a sufficient rate (≥66%, mean ± SD of 93.3% ± 9.5%). Bland Altman Plot analysis between home testing and the U-Sniff test was nearly identical (bias = 0.04). CPS-C(de) showed similar results to the original Chinese version and a moderate correlation was found between CPS-C(de) scores and Body Mass Index of children (r30 = −0.527, p = 0.003). Conclusions Remote olfactory testing in children using household items is feasible. The CPS-C(de) may be of value for future olfactory studies.

2.
Laryngoscope ; 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with olfactory dysfunction (OD) frequently report symptoms of depression. The objective of this study was to determine how clinical characteristics and olfactory-related quality of life (QoL) measures associate with the likelihood for major depressive disorders (MDDs). METHODS: A total of 192 OD patients were included. Olfactory function was measured using all three subtests of the Sniffn' Sticks test. Olfactory-related quality of life (QoL) was evaluated using the Questionnaires of Olfactory Dysfunction (QOD)-negative (NS) and -positive statement (PS). The likelihood for MDD was assessed using the Patients Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2). Demographics and disease-specific variables (etiology and duration of OD) were collected. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to associate disease-specific variables and the QOD with the outcome of the PHQ-2. Additionally, the predictive ability of the QOD-NS to predict depressive symptoms was calculated. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, COVID-19 related smell loss, the QOD-NS, and the QOD-PS were significantly associated with the PHQ-2. In multivariable analyses adjusting for QoL measures, the QOD-NS (ß = 0.532, p < 0.001) and sinonasal OD (compared with postinfectious OD) were significantly associated with the PHQ-2 (ß = 0.146, p = 0.047). When omitting QoL measures from multivariable analyses, only COVID-19 related OD (compared with postinfectious OD) was significantly associated with the PHQ-2 (ß = 0.287, p = 0.009). A QOD-NS score > 20.5 had 70.13% sensitivity and 76.32% specificity for detecting symptoms of depression. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that COVID-19 related OD might be associated with a higher likelihood for MDD. Furthermore, we showed that the QOD-NS score might be helpful to predict symptoms of depression in OD patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2022.

3.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30087, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687290

ABSTRACT

The benefits of vaccination - regarding COVID-19 infection and transmission, as well as COVID-associated complications - clearly outweigh the potential risk of vaccine-associated inflammation of the heart and other adverse events. Given the current state of knowledge, the outcome of myocarditis and pericarditis following vaccination is generally good. This review aims to guide physicians in the early diagnosis and management of suspected myocarditis following mRNA COVID vaccination. The initial work-up should include detailed history, a 12-lead electrocardiogram and serological biomarkers (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T/I, natriuretic peptides and markers of inflammation) in accordance with the assessments recommended in current clinical practice guidelines for patients presenting with acute chest pain. In patients with suspected myocarditis, further assessment with transthoracic echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging should be undertaken to confirm peri-/myocarditis and to distinguish the findings from other diseases with similar presentation. Patients with mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis should be followed-up at least once to exclude chronic myocardial inflammation and deterioration of left ventricular ejection fraction. Consultation with an expert such as an immunologist with experience in vaccination regarding further mRNA vaccinations is advised in all patients with mRNA vaccine-associated perimyocarditis. Reporting of mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis to Swissmedic is mandatory. Cohort studies prospectively follow-up on young adult and paediatric populations following immunisation with an mRNA COVID vaccine to monitor cardiac and immune parameters would generate valuable knowledge to better understand pathogenesis and risk factors for vaccine-associated perimyocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Vaccination/adverse effects , Ventricular Function, Left , Young Adult
4.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509232

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Olfactory dysfunction (OD) is a common symptom of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although many patients have been reported to regain olfactory function within the first month, long-term observation reports vary. Therefore, we aimed to assess the course of chemosensory function in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 within 3-15 months after the infection. METHODS: One hundred and two patients (71 females and 31 males; mean age 38.8 years) diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and subjective OD participated in this single-center study 111-457 days after onset of OD. Patients first performed chemosensory tests at home, followed by psychophysical testing (Sniffin' Sticks (TDI), 27-item Candy Smell Test (CST), Taste Strips Test (TST)) in the clinic. Questionnaires regarding importance of olfaction (IOQ) and olfactory-specific quality of life (QOD) were applied at both timepoints. RESULTS: After a mean 216 days (SD 73; range 111-457) between OD onset and follow-up testing, the mean Sniffin' Sticks (TDI) score was 27.1 points (SD 5.8; range 4.25-38.5): 4.0% were anosmic, 72.5% hyposmic, and 23.5% normosmic. At follow-up testing, 73.5% of patients reported improvement, 5.9% deterioration, and 20.6% no change in OD. Moreover, full recovery of self-perceived smell, flavor, and taste was not observed. According to questionnaires, the individual importance of smell did not change, but participants showed improvement in OD-related quality of life (p < 0.001) and had increased parosmia scores (p = 0.014) at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Our results show that long-lasting OD after SARS-CoV-2 infection is a common symptom. The majority of patients had OD in the range of hyposmia, which was confirmed by comprehensive smell tests.

5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e25163, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension restricts the ability of patients to perform routine physical activities. As part of pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment, inhaled iloprost can be administered via a nebulizer that tracks inhalation behavior. Pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment is guided by intermittent clinical measurements, such as 6-minute walk distance, assessed during regular physician visits. Continuous digital monitoring of physical activity may facilitate more complete assessment of the impact of pulmonary arterial hypertension on daily life. Physical activity tracking with a wearable has not yet been assessed with simultaneous tracking of pulmonary arterial hypertension medication intake. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to digitally track the physical parameters of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension who were starting treatment with iloprost using a Breelib nebulizer. The primary objective was to investigate correlations between changes in digital physical activity measures and changes in traditional clinical measures and health-related quality of life over 3 months. Secondary objectives were to evaluate inhalation behavior, adverse events, and changes in heart rate and sleep quality. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter observational study of adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension in World Health Organization functional class III who were adding inhaled iloprost to existing pulmonary arterial hypertension therapy. Daily distance walked, step count, number of standing-up events, heart rate, and 6-minute walk distance were digitally captured using smartwatch (Apple Watch Series 2) and smartphone (iPhone 6S) apps during a 3-month observation period (which began when iloprost treatment began). Before and at the end of the observation period (within 2 weeks), we also evaluated 6-minute walk distance, Borg dyspnea, functional class, B-type natriuretic peptide (or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels, health-related quality of life (EQ-5D questionnaire), and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). RESULTS: Of 31 patients, 18 were included in the full analysis (observation period: median 91.5 days, IQR 88.0 to 92.0). Changes from baseline in traditional and digital 6-minute walk distance were moderately correlated (r=0.57). Physical activity (daily distance walked: median 0.4 km, IQR -0.2 to 1.9; daily step count: median 591, IQR -509 to 2413) and clinical measures (traditional 6-minute walk distance: median 26 m, IQR 0 to 40) changed concordantly from baseline to the end of the observation period. Health-related quality of life showed little change. Total sleep score and resting heart rate slightly decreased. Distance walked and step count showed short-term increases after each iloprost inhalation. No new safety signals were identified (safety analysis set: n=30). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that despite challenges, parallel monitoring of physical activity, heart rate, and iloprost inhalation is feasible in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and may complement traditional measures in guiding treatment; however, the sample size of this study limits generalizability. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03293407; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03293407. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/12144.


Subject(s)
Hypertension, Pulmonary , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Heart Rate , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Iloprost/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Walking
6.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 36(2): 253-260, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies provided the first evidence that the importance of olfaction decreases with the duration of olfactory dysfunction (OD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in olfactory-related quality of life (QoL) between patients with new-onset and persistent smell loss (>4 weeks) during the coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic and patients with persistent postinfectious OD (PIOD) that were recruited before the pandemic. METHODS: This was a retrospective study that included 149 patients with self-reported OD. The olfactory-related QoL was measured using the questionnaire of OD (QOD). The QOD measures the degree to which patients (i) adjust and cope with smell loss (QOD-positive statement [QOD-PS]), (ii) suffer from distorted odor perceptions (QOD-parosmia [QOD-PAR]), and (iii) suffer from smell loss in general (QOD-negative statement [QOD-NS]). Self-perceived chemosensory function, demographics, olfactory function, and duration of smell loss were evaluated. Analyses of variance were used to depict differences in QoL-outcomes between different OD groups. RESULTS: All patients included during the COVID-19 pandemic reported an extensive loss of chemosensory functions of smell, taste, and flavor perception. Psychophysical retronasal screening testing showed olfactory impairments in more than half of these patients. One-way analysis of variance and posthoc tests revealed that the QOD-NS was significantly higher in the new-onset OD group than the PIOD group. At the same time, the QOD-PS score was significantly higher in the PIOD and the persistent COVID-19 OD group than in the new-onset OD group. CONCLUSION: We showed that patients with persistent OD experienced better olfactory-related adjustment and lower QoL-impairment scores than those with recent-onset smell loss, suggesting that the olfactory-related QoL might change as a function of time after symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
7.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30087, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478316

ABSTRACT

The benefits of vaccination - regarding COVID-19 infection and transmission, as well as COVID-associated complications - clearly outweigh the potential risk of vaccine-associated inflammation of the heart and other adverse events. Given the current state of knowledge, the outcome of myocarditis and pericarditis following vaccination is generally good. This review aims to guide physicians in the early diagnosis and management of suspected myocarditis following mRNA COVID vaccination. The initial work-up should include detailed history, a 12-lead electrocardiogram and serological biomarkers (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T/I, natriuretic peptides and markers of inflammation) in accordance with the assessments recommended in current clinical practice guidelines for patients presenting with acute chest pain. In patients with suspected myocarditis, further assessment with transthoracic echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging should be undertaken to confirm peri-/myocarditis and to distinguish the findings from other diseases with similar presentation. Patients with mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis should be followed-up at least once to exclude chronic myocardial inflammation and deterioration of left ventricular ejection fraction. Consultation with an expert such as an immunologist with experience in vaccination regarding further mRNA vaccinations is advised in all patients with mRNA vaccine-associated perimyocarditis. Reporting of mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis to Swissmedic is mandatory. Cohort studies prospectively follow-up on young adult and paediatric populations following immunisation with an mRNA COVID vaccine to monitor cardiac and immune parameters would generate valuable knowledge to better understand pathogenesis and risk factors for vaccine-associated perimyocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Vaccination/adverse effects , Ventricular Function, Left , Young Adult
8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 1717-1721, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384161

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Concern has been raised that treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers may increase the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which acts as the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and lead to an increased risk of death from SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to address this concern by evaluating the in vivo relationship of treatment with ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) with circulating plasma concentrations of ACE2 in a large cohort of patients with established cardiovascular disease (n = 1864) or cardiovascular risk factors (n = 2144) but without a history of heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was measured in 4008 patients (median age 68, 33% women, 31% on ACE-inhibitors, 31% on ARB) using the SOMAscan proteomic platform (SomaLogic Inc, Colorado, USA). Plasma concentration of ACE2 was comparable in 1250 patients on ACE inhibitors (mean 5.99) versus patients without ACE inhibitors (mean 5.98, P = 0.54). Similarly, plasma concentration of ACE2 was comparable in 1260 patients on ARB (mean 5.99) versus patients without ARB (mean 5.98, P = 0.50). Plasma concentration of ACE2 was comparable in 2474 patients on either ACE inhibitors or ARB (mean 5.99) versus patients without ACE inhibitors or ARB (mean 5.98, P = 0.31). Multivariable quantile regression model analysis confirmed the lack of association between treatment with ACE inhibitors or ARB and ACE2 concentrations. Body mass index showed the only positive association with ACE2 plasma concentration (effect 0.015, 95% confidence interval 0.002 to 0.028, P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of patients with established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors but without heart failure, ACE inhibitors and ARB were not associated with higher plasma concentrations of ACE2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Female , Humans , Male , Proteomics , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 166(4): 615-622, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261241

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Current epidemiologic predictions of COVID-19 suggest that SARS-CoV-2 mitigation strategies must be implemented long-term. In-office aerosol-generating procedures pose a risk to staff and patients while necessitating examination room shutdown to allow aerosol decontamination by indwelling ventilation. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) purifiers' effectiveness in eliminating airborne SARS-CoV-2 from indoor environments. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Databases, and the World Health Organization's COVID-19 Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease. REVIEW METHODS: Data sources were systematically searched for original English-language published studies indexed up to January 14, 2021 per the following search strategy: ("HEPA" OR "High-efficiency" OR "High-efficiency particulate air" OR "Efficiency particulate" OR "Purifier" OR "Filter" OR "Cleaner" OR "Filtration") AND ("COVID" OR "COVID-19" OR "SARS-CoV-2" OR "Coronavirus"). Additional relevant studies were identified by searching the reference lists of included articles. RESULTS: Eleven published studies have evaluated the effectiveness of portable HEPA purifiers in eliminating airborne SARS-CoV-2 with relevantly sized surrogate particles. Ten studies evaluated aerosols and submicron particles similar in size to SARS-CoV-2 virions. In all studies, portable HEPA purifiers were able to significantly reduce airborne SARS-CoV-2-surrogate particles. The addition of portable HEPA purifiers augmented other decontamination strategies such as ventilation. CONCLUSION: Experimental studies provide evidence for portable HEPA purifiers' potential to eliminate airborne SARS-CoV-2 and augment primary decontamination strategies such as ventilation. Based on filtration rates, additional air exchanges provided by portable HEPA purifiers may be calculated and room shutdown times potentially reduced after aerosol-generating procedures.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , COVID-19 , Aerosols , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilation
11.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(1): 257-265, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Olfactory dysfunction (OD) constitutes a major symptom in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Yet, most data on smell loss rely on the evaluation of orthonasal olfactory performance. Therefore, we aimed to assess retronasal olfactory function (ROF) over a period of several weeks in proven and suspected COVID-19 patients. METHODS: One hundred and one subjects with suspected or laboratory-proven COVID-19 participated in this study. In patients with OD no longer than 4 weeks after initial symptom onset, ROF was measured with the 7-item Candy Smell Test ten times over 7 weeks. RESULTS: Olfactory function was decreased in the investigated patients and remained decreased over the course of 7 weeks. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed no significant difference of ROF between different measurement time points. However, self-assessment of smell and flavour improved significantly (p = 0.013 and p = 0.043), but did not show complete recovery. CONCLUSION: The current investigation revealed significant improvements in subjective smell and flavour perception over the course of 7 weeks in proven and suspected COVID-19 patients suffering from acute OD. However, objectively measured ROF based on a screening test revealed no improvements within the same time period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
12.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 71(6): 348-350, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199340

ABSTRACT

During the next few months or years, vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection will significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19. However, additional measures are needed to protect those who are still not immunized. This is even more important in view of new viral mutations that result in increased transmission rates. We propose that the use of long-standing medicinal solutions based on hypochloric acid (HOCl) and intended for application on wounds may be effective as a gargling solution or nasal irrigation in blocking transmission of the virus. Here, we propose the use of HOCl-containing solutions for blocking the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in combination with other prevention measures. This may constitute another important cornerstone in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hypochlorous Acid/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Administration, Oral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Nasal Lavage , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Nasal Sprays , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 11(7): 1041-1046, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136915

ABSTRACT

The frequent association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and olfactory dysfunction is creating an unprecedented demand for a treatment of the olfactory loss. Systemic corticosteroids have been considered as a therapeutic option. However, based on current literature, we call for caution using these treatments in early COVID-19-related olfactory dysfunction because: (1) evidence supporting their usefulness is weak; (2) the rate of spontaneous recovery of COVID-19-related olfactory dysfunction is high; and (3) corticosteroids have well-known potential adverse effects. We encourage randomized placebo-controlled trials investigating the efficacy of systemic steroids in this indication and strongly emphasize to initially consider smell training, which is supported by a robust evidence base and has no known side effects.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Medication Therapy Management/statistics & numerical data , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Medication Therapy Management/standards , Needs Assessment , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfactory Mucosa/drug effects , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , Remission, Spontaneous , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 10(3): 310-319, 2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114844

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased awareness that severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) may have profound effects on the cardiovascular system. COVID-19 often affects patients with pre-existing cardiac disease, and may trigger acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and acute heart failure (AHF). However, as COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory infectious disease, there remain substantial uncertainty and controversy whether and how cardiovascular biomarkers should be used in patients with suspected COVID-19. To help clinicians understand the possible value as well as the most appropriate interpretation of cardiovascular biomarkers in COVID-19, it is important to highlight that recent findings regarding the prognostic role of cardiovascular biomarkers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are similar to those obtained in studies for pneumonia and ARDS in general. Cardiovascular biomarkers reflecting pathophysiological processes involved in COVID-19/pneumonia and its complications have a role evaluating disease severity, cardiac involvement, and risk of death in COVID-19 as well as in pneumonias caused by other pathogens. First, cardiomyocyte injury, as quantified by cardiac troponin concentrations, and haemodynamic cardiac stress, as quantified by natriuretic peptide concentrations, may occur in COVID-19 as in other pneumonias. The level of those biomarkers correlates with disease severity and mortality. Interpretation of cardiac troponin and natriuretic peptide concentrations as quantitative variables may aid in risk stratification in COVID-19/pneumonia and also will ensure that these biomarkers maintain high diagnostic accuracy for AMI and AHF. Second, activated coagulation as quantified by D-dimers seems more prominent in COVID-19 as in other pneumonias. Due to the central role of endothelitis and VTE in COVID-19, serial measurements of D-dimers may help physicians in the selection of patients for VTE imaging and the intensification of the level of anticoagulation from prophylactic to slightly higher or even therapeutic doses.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Pandemics , Troponin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(3): 176-183, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in December 2019 and rapidly spread globally. Since there is still no specific treatment available, prevention of disease spread is crucial to manage the pandemic. Adequate public information is very important. To assess the optimal timing, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between web-based interest and new cases and deaths due to COVID-19. METHODS: Web-based interest for queries related to 'coronavirus' was assessed between 1 January and 19 June 2020, using Google Trends in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Reliability analysis of the used search terms was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. To investigate the association between web-based interest and new COVID-19 cases or deaths, the relative search volume was analysed for correlation with new cases and deaths. RESULTS: Reliability analysis revealed excellent reliability for COVID-19 search terms in all countries. Web-based interest peaked between 23 February and 5 April 2020, which was prior to the peak of new infections and deaths in most included countries. There was a moderate to strong correlation between COVID-19 related queries and new cases or new deaths. CONCLUSION: Web-based interest in COVID-19 peaked prior to the peak of new infections and deaths in most countries included. Thus, monitoring public interest via Google Trends might be useful to select the optimal-timing of web-based disease-specific information and preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Access to Information , Australia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Canada/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , South Africa/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
16.
ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec ; 83(2): 130-134, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953943

ABSTRACT

Self-reported chemosensory dysfunction in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 patients is common. We present a case of reversible smell loss in a young patient with mild coronavirus disease 2019 infection assessed with established testing methods over a period of 8 weeks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Smell/physiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/diagnosis
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