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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVIH-study is a prospective SARS-CoV-2 vaccination study in 1154 people with HIV (PWH), of whom 14% showed a reduced or absent antibody response after primary vaccination. We evaluated whether an additional vaccination boosts immune responses in these hyporesponders. METHODS: Consenting hyporesponders received an additional 100µg mRNA-1273 vaccination. The primary endpoint was the increase in antibodies 28 days thereafter. Secondary endpoints were the correlation between participant characteristics and antibody response, levels of neutralizing antibodies, S-specific T-cell and B-cell responses, and reactogenicity. RESULTS: Of the 66 participants, 40 previously received two doses ChAdOx1-S, 22 two doses BNT162b2, and four a single dose Ad26.COV2.S. The median age was 63[IQR:60-66], 86% were male, pre-vaccination CD4+ T-cell count was median 650/µL[IQR:423-941] and 96% had HIV-RNA < 50 copies/mL. The mean S1-specific antibody level increased from 35 BAU/mL (95%CI:24-46) to 4317 BAU/mL (95%CI:3275-5360) post-vaccination (p < 0.0001). Of all participants, 97% showed an adequate response (>300 BAU/mL) and the 45 antibody negative participants all seroconverted (>33.8 BAU/mL). A significant increase in the proportion of PWH with detectable ancestral S-specific CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.04) and S-specific B-cells (p = 0.02) was observed. CONCLUSION: An additional mRNA-1273 vaccination induced a robust serological response in 97% of PWH with a hyporesponse after primary vaccination.

3.
PLoS Med ; 19(10): e1003979, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines can be less immunogenic in people living with HIV (PLWH), but for SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations this is unknown. In this study we set out to investigate, for the vaccines currently approved in the Netherlands, the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in PLWH. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the immunogenicity of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S, and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines in adult PLWH without prior COVID-19, and compared to HIV-negative controls. The primary endpoint was the anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG response after mRNA vaccination. Secondary endpoints included the serological response after vector vaccination, anti-SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response, and reactogenicity. Between 14 February and 7 September 2021, 1,154 PLWH (median age 53 [IQR 44-60] years, 85.5% male) and 440 controls (median age 43 [IQR 33-53] years, 28.6% male) were included in the final analysis. Of the PLWH, 884 received BNT162b2, 100 received mRNA-1273, 150 received ChAdOx1-S, and 20 received Ad26.COV2.S. In the group of PLWH, 99% were on antiretroviral therapy, 97.7% were virally suppressed, and the median CD4+ T-cell count was 710 cells/µL (IQR 520-913). Of the controls, 247 received mRNA-1273, 94 received BNT162b2, 26 received ChAdOx1-S, and 73 received Ad26.COV2.S. After mRNA vaccination, geometric mean antibody concentration was 1,418 BAU/mL in PLWH (95% CI 1322-1523), and after adjustment for age, sex, and vaccine type, HIV status remained associated with a decreased response (0.607, 95% CI 0.508-0.725, p < 0.001). All controls receiving an mRNA vaccine had an adequate response, defined as >300 BAU/mL, whilst in PLWH this response rate was 93.6%. In PLWH vaccinated with mRNA-based vaccines, higher antibody responses were predicted by CD4+ T-cell count 250-500 cells/µL (2.845, 95% CI 1.876-4.314, p < 0.001) or >500 cells/µL (2.936, 95% CI 1.961-4.394, p < 0.001), whilst a viral load > 50 copies/mL was associated with a reduced response (0.454, 95% CI 0.286-0.720, p = 0.001). Increased IFN-γ, CD4+ T-cell, and CD8+ T-cell responses were observed after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides in ELISpot and activation-induced marker assays, comparable to controls. Reactogenicity was generally mild, without vaccine-related serious adverse events. Due to the control of vaccine provision by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, there were some differences between vaccine groups in the age, sex, and CD4+ T-cell counts of recipients. CONCLUSIONS: After vaccination with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were reduced in PLWH compared to HIV-negative controls. To reach and maintain the same serological responses as HIV-negative controls, additional vaccinations are probably required. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NL9214). https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/9214.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 915, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703249

ABSTRACT

Quantitative or qualitative differences in immunity may drive clinical severity in COVID-19. Although longitudinal studies to record the course of immunological changes are ample, they do not necessarily predict clinical progression at the time of hospital admission. Here we show, by a machine learning approach using serum pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral cytokine and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody measurements as input data, that COVID-19 patients cluster into three distinct immune phenotype groups. These immune-types, determined by unsupervised hierarchical clustering that is agnostic to severity, predict clinical course. The identified immune-types do not associate with disease duration at hospital admittance, but rather reflect variations in the nature and kinetics of individual patient's immune response. Thus, our work provides an immune-type based scheme to stratify COVID-19 patients at hospital admittance into high and low risk clinical categories with distinct cytokine and antibody profiles that may guide personalized therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunophenotyping/methods , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3189, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246368

ABSTRACT

In a randomized clinical trial of 86 hospitalized COVID-19 patients comparing standard care to treatment with 300mL convalescent plasma containing high titers of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, no overall clinical benefit was observed. Using a comprehensive translational approach, we unravel the virological and immunological responses following treatment to disentangle which COVID-19 patients may benefit and should be the focus of future studies. Convalescent plasma is safe, does not improve survival, has no effect on the disease course, nor does plasma enhance viral clearance in the respiratory tract, influence SARS-CoV-2 antibody development or serum proinflammatory cytokines levels. Here, we show that the vast majority of patients already had potent neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at hospital admission and with comparable titers to carefully selected plasma donors. This resulted in the decision to terminate the trial prematurely. Treatment with convalescent plasma should be studied early in the disease course or at least preceding autologous humoral response development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Serotherapy
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