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1.
East Mediterr Health J ; 29(4): 232-235, 2023 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245497
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 107, 2023 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health and clinical recommendations are established from systematic reviews and retrospective meta-analyses combining effect sizes, traditionally, from aggregate data and more recently, using individual participant data (IPD) of published studies. However, trials often have outcomes and other meta-data that are not defined and collected in a standardized way, making meta-analysis problematic. IPD meta-analysis can only partially fix the limitations of traditional, retrospective, aggregate meta-analysis; prospective meta-analysis further reduces the problems. METHODS: We developed an initiative including seven clinical intervention studies of balanced energy-protein (BEP) supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation that are being conducted (or recently concluded) in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, and Pakistan to test the effect of BEP on infant and maternal outcomes. These studies were commissioned after an expert consultation that designed recommendations for a BEP product for use among pregnant and lactating women in low- and middle-income countries. The initiative goal is to harmonize variables across studies to facilitate IPD meta-analyses on closely aligned data, commonly called prospective meta-analysis. Our objective here is to describe the process of harmonizing variable definitions and prioritizing research questions. A two-day workshop of investigators, content experts, and advisors was held in February 2020 and harmonization activities continued thereafter. Efforts included a range of activities from examining protocols and data collection plans to discussing best practices within field constraints. Prior to harmonization, there were many similar outcomes and variables across studies, such as newborn anthropometry, gestational age, and stillbirth, however, definitions and protocols differed. As well, some measurements were being conducted in several but not all studies, such as food insecurity. Through the harmonization process, we came to consensus on important shared variables, particularly outcomes, added new measurements, and improved protocols across studies. DISCUSSION: We have fostered extensive communication between investigators from different studies, and importantly, created a large set of harmonized variable definitions within a prospective meta-analysis framework. We expect this initiative will improve reporting within each study in addition to providing opportunities for a series of IPD meta-analyses.


Subject(s)
Dietary Supplements , Lactation , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Data Collection , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
3.
Public Health Rev ; 42: 1604343, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497193

ABSTRACT

With COVAX touted as the only platform that is built on equity and fairness, there is growing discontent and concern that the platform is falling short of its goals as COVID ravages across multiple countries. There are two serious issues that we address here. Firstly, COVID distribution principles and mechanisms need to be rethought in terms of a shift from private to global interests with a focus on prioritizing deliveries. Secondly, with multiple vaccines present, it is vital that countries recognize all of them, once proven safe and effective, to prevent any form of vaccine apartheid and discrimination.

4.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 8(1)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has globally affected healthcare including the transplantation programmes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied the impact of COVID-19 on live liver donor (LLD) programme at liver transplant centre in Gambat, Pakistan. Standard operative procedures (SOPs) including COVID-19 nasopharyngeal swab PCR, CT scans, personal protective equipment use, 6-feet distancing were developed for LLD and transplant team to mitigate COVID-19 exposure. We compared the complications, healthcare utilisation (hospital stay, readmission) and mortality between two LLD cohorts-before and during COVID-19 pandemic from March 2019 to December 2020. RESULTS: During study period 300 LLD surgeries were performed. There was an increase in rate of LLDs from 132 (44%) in pre-COVID to 168 (56%) during COVID-19 era. Average numbers of transplants per month performed during pre-COVID and during COVID-19 era were 10.1 and 14, respectively. No donor has developed COVID-19 infection during hospitalisation. Rate of all LLD complications (32 (21.47%) and 49 (29.16%), p=0.43), uneventful discharges (120/168 (71.4%) and 88/132 (66.6%), p<0.05), mean hospital stay (6±2 days and 5±2 days, p=0.17) and readmission (5 (4%) and 3 (1.8%), p=0.43) were similar during the pre-COVID and COVID-19 era. No donor mortality was observed during study period. CONCLUSION: With the implementation of mindful SOPs, rate of LLD increased without any case of COVID-19 infection. Our SOPs were helpful in continuation of LLD programme in a developing country during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Liver , Living Donors , Pakistan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Trials ; 22(1): 618, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411725

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Considering the therapeutic potential of honey and Nigella sativa (HNS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the objective of the study is defined to evaluate the prophylactic role of HNS. TRIAL DESIGN: The study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, adaptive clinical trial with parallel group design, superiority framework with an allocation ratio of 1:1 among experimental (HNS) and placebo group. An interim analysis will be done when half of the patients have been recruited to evaluate the need to adapt sample size, efficacy, and futility of the trial. PARTICIPANTS: All asymptomatic patients with hospital or community based COVID-19 exposure will be screened if they have had 4 days exposure to a confirmed case. Non-pregnant adults with significant exposure level will be enrolled in the study High-risk exposure (<6 feet distance for >10min without face protection) Moderate exposure (<6 feet distance for >10min with face protection) Subjects with acute or chronic infection, COVID-19 vaccinated, and allergy to HNS will be excluded from the study. Recruitment will be done at Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Institute, Ali Clinic and Doctors Lounge in Lahore (Pakistan). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In this clinical study, patients will receive either raw natural honey (0.5 g) and encapsulated organic Nigella sativa seeds (40 mg) per kg body weight per day or empty capsule with and 30 ml of 5% dextrose water as a placebo for 14 days. Both the natural products will be certified for standardization by Government College University (Botany department). Furthermore, each patient will be given standard care therapy according to version 3.0 of the COVID-19 clinical management guidelines by the Ministry of National Health Services of Pakistan. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome will be Incidence of COVID-19 cases within 14 days of randomisation. Secondary endpoints include incidence of COVID-19-related symptoms, hospitalizations, and deaths along with the severity of COVID-19-related symptoms till 14th day of randomization. RANDOMISATION: Participants will be randomized into experimental and control groups (1:1 allocation ratio) via the lottery method. There will be stratification based on high risk and moderate risk exposure. BLINDING (MASKING): Quadruple blinding will be ensured for the participants, care providers and outcome accessors. Data analysts will also be blinded to avoid conflict of interest. Site principal investigator will be responsible for ensuring masking. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 1000 participants will be enrolled in the study with 1:1 allocation. TRIAL STATUS: The final protocol version 1.4 was approved by institutional review board of Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Complex on February 15, 2021. The trial recruitment was started on March 05, 2021, with a trial completion date of February 15, 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial was registered on February 23, 2021, www.clinicaltrials.gov with registration ID NCT04767087 . FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). With the intention of expediting dissemination of this trial, the conventional formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Honey , Nigella sativa , Adult , Hospitals , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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