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1.
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal ; 24(3):201-213, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2073487

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this work is to build a biomass dryer using coconut shells with a remote monitoring system for drying any kind of cracker raw materials, especially cassava chips. Remote monitoring has utilized the internet of thing (IoT) concept, which recording temperature, relative humidity, and relative moisture of the object inside the dryer. The dryer can be loaded with three shelves simultaneously. Raw material for cassava crackers with a total mass of 10 kg. The raw material for cassava crackers is placed in the Biomass drying chamber. The raw material for cassava crackers is dried within two hours. The loss of moisture content of all raw materials for cassava crackers increased with increasing drying time and temperature. It is recommended to use drying system with utilize IoT system as remote monitoring system because it will save in time and employee, as well as minimize human contact in the new normal condition because of Covid-19 pandemic. © 2022, Int. Comm. of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. All rights reserved.

2.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19292, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538786

ABSTRACT

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is categorized into primary HLH and secondary HLH. Primary or familial HLH is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutation in immune regulatory genes. Secondary HLH is an uncommon hyperinflammatory disease triggered by a critical illness (malignancies or viral infection) that induces an uncontrollable excessive immune response, which results in multiorgan failure. Due to the rarity of the syndrome, HLH is associated with worse outcomes. Severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is identified as a trigger of HLH, and published literature suggests that patients with severe COVID-19 are at high risk of developing HLH. COVID-19-associated HLH is rarely reported in the literature. Herein we present a case of secondary HLH due to COVID-19 presented in the emergency department with prolonged non-resolving fever.

3.
Universitas Riau International Conference on Science and Environment 2021, URICSE 2021 ; 2049, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1532393

ABSTRACT

Technological innovations based on the internet of things have been designed, this technology is very suitable to deal with New Normal conditions (Covid 19). This internet of things-based technology tool has been tested on a laboratory scale to produce a prototype tool, which is ready to be implemented on an industrial scale. Biomass-based post-harvest technology innovation with the internet of things system, Stages of research methods to achieve goals. The first stage is to design a technological innovation design, to design an internet of things work system, to test the results of the tool design on a laboratory scale. The results of the characteristic test of this technological tool using coconut shell biomass waste with variations in the number of shells, 6, 8, 10 and 14. The results of the temperature characteristics in the drying chamber show that there is a linear relationship between the maximum temperature results produced and the number of coconut shells. Temperature results data can be viewed via an Android phone or based on the Internet of Things (IoT). © 2021 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved.

4.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 21(12): 1287-1301, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532339

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder with multiple comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders. Detected based on an overnight sleep study is called polysomnography (PSG); OSA still remains undiagnosed in majority of the population mainly attributed to lack of awareness. To overcome the limitations posed by PSG such as patient discomfort and overnight hospitalization, newer technologies are being explored. In addition, challenges associated with current management of OSA using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), etc. presents several pitfalls. AREAS COVERED: Conventional and modern detection/management techniques including PSG, CPAP, smart wearable/pillows, bio-motion sensors, etc., have both pros and cons. To fulfill the limitations in OSA diagnostics, there is an imperative need for new technology for screening of symptomatic and more importantly asymptomatic OSA patients to reduce the risk of several associated life-threatening comorbidities. In this line, molecular marker-based diagnostics have shown great promises. EXPERT OPINION: A detailed overview is presented on the OSA management and diagnostic approaches and recent advances in the molecular screening methods. The potentials of biomarker-based detection and its limitations are also portrayed and a comparison between the standard, current modern approaches, and promising futuristic technologies for OSA diagnostics and management is set forth.ABBREVIATIONS AHI: Apnea hypopnea index; AI: artificial intelligence; CAM: Cell adhesion molecules; CPAP: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure; COVID-19: Coronavirus Disease 2019; CVD: Cardiovascular disease; ELISA: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; HSAT: Home sleep apnea testing; IR-UWB: Impulse radio-ultra wideband; MMA: maxillomandibular advancement; PSG: Polysomnography; OSA: Obstructive sleep apnea; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; QD: Quantum dot.


Subject(s)
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
5.
Cureus ; 13(9): e17913, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441369

ABSTRACT

Like many other countries at the moment, the United Kingdom (UK) is currently under national lockdown due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. An unfortunate consequence of such social isolation measures is that patients with genuine acute medical emergencies may not present to a hospital in a timely manner. We present such a scenario, whereby a patient had a delayed presentation of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to fear of breaching COVID-19 lockdown rules. As a result of the patient presenting well outside the optimal treatment window, her STEMI was complicated by a severe ventricular septal defect (VSD). We discuss how the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced the nature and management of STEMIs and associated issues.

6.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(10)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438668

ABSTRACT

This paper reports the design, development, and testing of a novel, yet simple and low-cost portable device for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2. The device performs loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and provides visually distinguishable images of the fluorescence emitted from the samples. The device utilises an aluminium block embedded with a cartridge heater for isothermal heating of the sample and a single-board computer and camera for fluorescence detection. The device demonstrates promising results within 20 min using clinically relevant starting concentrations of the synthetic template. Time-to-signal data for this device are considerably lower compared to standard quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction(qPCR) machine (~10-20 min vs. >38 min) for 1 × 102 starting template copy number. The device in its fully optimized and characterized state can potentially be used as simple to operate, rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive platform for population screening as well as point-of-need severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection and patient management.

8.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4461-4468, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263095

ABSTRACT

A newly emerged strain of SARS-CoV-2 of B.1.1.7 lineage has caused a significant surge in the SARS-CoV-2 infections in the UK. In this study, changes in the epitopes of spike and orf8 proteins in SARS-CoV-2 of B.1.1.7 lineage were investigated. Genomic alignment of the SARS-CoV-2/B.1.1.7 with SARS-CoV-2/Wuhan showed the presence of several mutations in orf1a/b, spike, orf8, and N proteins of SARS-CoV-2/B.1.1.7. Molecular models of spike and orf8 proteins were constructed by homology modeling. Superimposition between the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2/Wuhan and SARS-CoV-2/B.1.1.7 showed noticeable variations in the spatial orientation in Val70-Asn74 and Thr250-Ser255 regions. This may have also resulted in the extension of the epitopic region at Ser244-Gly249 in the SARS-CoV-2/B.1.1.7 spike protein. Superimposition of the SARS-CoV-2/B.1.1.7 spike protein over Fab-spike protein complexes of SARS-CoV-2/Wuhan also showed subtle variations in the antibody binding affinity targeting the N-terminal domain of the spike protein. Epitopic variations were also observed between the corresponding orf8 regions of SARS-CoV-2/Wuhan and SARS-CoV-2/B.1.1.7. Moreover, the presence of a stop codon at position 27 in orf8 connotes the emergence of two frames (orf8a and orf8b) in SARS-CoV-2, which further hampers its extracellular secretion, and in turn, immunogenicity. The findings of the present study could further be used to develop targeted immunotherapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Alignment , United Kingdom
9.
Infez Med ; 29(2):167-180, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1248656

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in a very short span of thirteen months has taken a considerable toll on humanity, resulting in over 3 million deaths with more than 150 million confirmed cases as on May 1, 2021. In the scarcity of a potential antiviral and protective vaccine, COVID-19 has posed high public health concerns, panic, and challenges to limit the spread of this pandemic virus. Only recently have a few vaccine candidates been developed, and vaccination programs have started in some countries. Multiple clinical presentations of COVID-19, animal spillover, cross-species jumping, zoonotic concerns, and emergence of virus variants have altogether created havoc during this ongoing pandemic. Several bodies of research are continuously working to elucidate the exact molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis. To develop a prospective antiviral therapy/vaccine for SARSCoV-2, it is quite essential to gain insight into the immunobiology and molecular virology of SARS-CoV-2. A thorough literature search was conducted up to 28th February 2021 in the PubMed and other databases for the articles describing the immunopathology and immune response of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which were critically evaluated and used to compile this article to present an overall update. Some of the information was drawn from studies on previous MERS and SARS viruses. Innate as well as adaptive immunity responses are elicited by exposure to SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 establishes a successful infection by escaping the host immunity as well as over activating the innate immune mechanisms that result in severe disease outcomes, including cytokine storm. This review summarizes the immunopathology and molecular immune mechanisms elicited during SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their similarities with MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV.

10.
Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica ; 30(1):218, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1110919

ABSTRACT

This paper uses a mathematical model for COVID-19 pandemic forecasting estimation. The continuum of mathematical and statistical models on communicable and non-communicable diseases has shown a great concern for risk to human lives. The three terms of the SIR model, S (susceptible), I (infectious) and R (recovered), are the main factors of any disease model. This SIR model was introduced in 1927 for forecasting communicable diseases. The SIR model is a simple disease technique by which we can explain mathematically the spread of a virus through a population using mathematical models. The SIR model answers the main three question of this study under specific assumptions. The key parameter in the derivative equations is the value of Q, which is the ratio of contact and the proportion of the total population that comes into contact with a contaminated individual. In the COVID-19 outbreak, this value is very high and the virus is spreading fast. What we see is that, if the value of Q is high, then the disease will spread widely and will result in an epidemic (in our case, it is already at pandemic level). Hence what can we do to reduce the value of Q? This is why currently we are told to wash our hands, because, if we wash our hands, even if we have been in a contact with somebody with the disease, we are much less likely to then become infected. Similarly, social distancing tells us to to keep away from people, because if we stay away from other people we are reducing our probability of coming into contact with someone who has the disease and we are therefore contributing to reducing the value Q and controlling the spread.

11.
Analyst ; 145(23): 7680-7686, 2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-798256

ABSTRACT

This work reports the development of a rapid, simple and inexpensive colorimetric paper-based assay for the detection of the severe acute respiratory symptom coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) humanized antibody. The paper device was prepared with lamination for easy sample handling and coated with the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen. This assay employed a colorimetric reaction, which is followed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated detecting antibody in the presence of the 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate. The colorimetric readout was evaluated and quantified for specificity and sensitivity. The characterization of this assay includes determining the linear regression curve, the limit of detection (LOD), the repeatability, and testing complex biological samples. We found that the LOD of the assay was 9.00 ng µL-1 (0.112 IU mL-1). The relative standard deviation was approximately 10% for a sample number of n = 3. We believe that our proof-of-concept assay has the potential to be developed for clinical screening of the SARS-CoV-2 humanized antibody as a tool to confirm infected active cases or to confirm SARS-CoV-2 immune cases during the process of vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Colorimetry/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Paper , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Armoracia/enzymology , Benzidines/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Colorimetry/instrumentation , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Horseradish Peroxidase/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Proof of Concept Study , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105016, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To highlight the increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke secondary to postulated COVID-19 mediated vasculopathy with concomitant ECMO related bleeding complications. BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has shown to be a systemic illness, not localized to the respiratory tract and lung parenchyma. Stroke is a common neurological complication. In particular, critically ill patients on ECMO are likely at higher risk of developing hemorrhagic stroke. CASE PRESENTATION: 38-year-old man presented with fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Due to severe respiratory failure, he required ECMO support. Subsequently, he was found to have left temporal intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Overall, his clinical course improved, and he was discharged with minimal neurological deficits. CONCLUSION: Although intracranial hemorrhage is a known complication of ECMO, patients with COVID-19 infection may be at a higher risk of cerebrovascular complications due to vasculopathy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Lung/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Stroke/etiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Hemorrhages/virology , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/virology , Treatment Outcome
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