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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1130539, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241121

ABSTRACT

The highly transmissible Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first detected in late 2021. Initial Omicron waves were primarily made up of sub-lineages BA.1 and/or BA.2, BA.4, and BA.5 subsequently became dominant in mid-2022, and several descendants of these sub-lineages have since emerged. Omicron infections have generally caused less severe disease on average than those caused by earlier variants of concern in healthy adult populations, at least, in part, due to increased population immunity. Nevertheless, healthcare systems in many countries, particularly those with low population immunity, have been overwhelmed by unprecedented surges in disease prevalence during Omicron waves. Pediatric admissions were also higher during Omicron waves compared with waves of previous variants of concern. All Omicron sub-lineages exhibit partial escape from wild-type (Wuhan-Hu 1) spike-based vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies, with sub-lineages with more enhanced immuno-evasive properties emerging over time. Evaluating vaccine effectiveness (VE) against Omicron sub-lineages has become challenging against a complex background of varying vaccine coverage, vaccine platforms, prior infection rates, and hybrid immunity. Original messenger RNA vaccine booster doses substantially improved VE against BA.1 or BA.2 symptomatic disease. However, protection against symptomatic disease waned, with reductions detected from 2 months after booster administration. While original vaccine-elicited CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses cross-recognize Omicron sub-lineages, thereby retaining protection against severe outcomes, variant-adapted vaccines are required to expand the breadth of B-cell responses and improve durability of protection. Variant-adapted vaccines were rolled out in late 2022 to increase overall protection against symptomatic and severe infections caused by Omicron sub-lineages and antigenically aligned variants with enhanced immune escape mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccine Efficacy , Cost of Illness
2.
Vaccines ; 11(2), 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2278611

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019 required the swift development of a vaccine to address the pandemic. Nonclinical GLP-compliant studies in Wistar Han rats were initiated to assess the local tolerance, systemic toxicity, and immune response to four mRNA vaccine candidates encoding immunogens derived from the spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Vaccine candidates were administered intramuscularly once weekly for three doses at 30 and/or 100 µg followed by a 3-week recovery period. Clinical pathology findings included higher white blood cell counts and acute phase reactant concentrations, lower platelet and reticulocyte counts, and lower RBC parameters. Microscopically, there was increased cellularity (lymphocytes) in the lymph nodes and spleen, increased hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and spleen, acute inflammation and edema at the injection site, and minimal hepatocellular vacuolation. These findings were generally attributed to the anticipated immune and inflammatory responses to the vaccines, except for hepatocyte vacuolation, which was interpreted to reflect hepatocyte LNP lipid uptake, was similar between candidates and resolved or partially recovered at the end of the recovery phase. These studies demonstrated safety and tolerability in rats, supporting SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-LNP vaccine clinical development.

3.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 29: 100586, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263544

ABSTRACT

Background: BNT162b2, an mRNA vaccine against COVID-19, is being utilised worldwide, but immunogenicity and safety data in Chinese individuals are limited. Methods: This phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included healthy or medically stable individuals aged 18-85 years enrolled at two clinical sites in China. Participants were stratified by age (≤55 or >55 years) and randomly assigned (3:1) by an independent randomisation professional to receive two doses of intramuscular BNT162b2 30 µg or placebo, administered 21 days apart. Study participants, study personnel, investigators, statisticians, and the sponsor's study management team were blinded to treatment assignment. Primary immunogenicity endpoints were the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of neutralising antibodies to live severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and seroconversion rates (SCR) 1 month after the second dose. Safety assessments included reactogenicity within 14 days of vaccination, adverse events (AEs), and clinical laboratory parameters. Randomised participants who received at least one dose were included in the efficacy and safety analyses on a complete case basis (incomplete/missing data not imputed). Results up to 6 months after the second dose are reported. Findings: Overall, 959 participants (all of Han ethnicity) who were recruited between December 5th, 2020 and January 9th, 2021 received at least one injection (BNT162b2, n=720; placebo, n=239). At 1 month after the second dose, the 50% neutralising antibody GMT was 294.4 (95% CI; 281.1-308.4) in the BNT162b2 group and 5.0 (95% CI; 5.0-5.0) in the placebo group. SCRs were 99.7% (95% CI; 99.0%-100.0%) and 0% (95% CI; 0.0%-1.5%), respectively (p<0.0001 vs placebo). Although the GMT of neutralising antibodies in the BNT162b2 group was greatly reduced at 6 months after the second dose, the SCR still remained at 58.8%. BNT162b2-elicited sera neutralised SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. T-cell responses were detected in 58/73 (79.5%) BNT162b2 recipients. Reactogenicity was mild or moderate in severity and resolved within a few days after onset. Unsolicited AEs were uncommon at 1 month following vaccine administration, and there were no vaccine-related serious AEs at 1 month or 6 months after the second dose. Interpretation: BNT162b2 vaccination induced a robust immune response with acceptable tolerability in Han Chinese adults. However, follow-up duration was relatively short and COVID-19 rates were not assessed. Safety data collection is continuing until 12 months after the second dose. Funding: BioNTech - sponsored the trial. Shanghai Fosun Pharmaceutical Development Inc. (Fosun Pharma) - conducted the trial, funded medical writing. ClinicalTrialsgov registration number: NCT04649021. Trial status: Completed.

4.
Comput Biol Med ; 155: 106618, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239077

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is leading to the discovery of hundreds of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants daily. While most variants do not impact the course of the pandemic, some variants pose an increased risk when the acquired mutations allow better evasion of antibody neutralisation or increased transmissibility. Early detection of such high-risk variants (HRVs) is paramount for the proper management of the pandemic. However, experimental assays to determine immune evasion and transmissibility characteristics of new variants are resource-intensive and time-consuming, potentially leading to delays in appropriate responses by decision makers. Presented herein is a novel in silico approach combining spike (S) protein structure modelling and large protein transformer language models on S protein sequences to accurately rank SARS-CoV-2 variants for immune escape and fitness potential. Both metrics were experimentally validated using in vitro pseudovirus-based neutralisation test and binding assays and were subsequently combined to explore the changing landscape of the pandemic and to create an automated Early Warning System (EWS) capable of evaluating new variants in minutes and risk-monitoring variant lineages in near real-time. The system accurately pinpoints the putatively dangerous variants by selecting on average less than 0.3% of the novel variants each week. The EWS flagged all 16 variants designated by the World Health Organization (WHO) as variants of interest (VOIs) if applicable or variants of concern (VOCs) otherwise with an average lead time of more than one and a half months ahead of their designation as such.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Benchmarking , Mutation
5.
Computers in biology and medicine ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2228034

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is leading to the discovery of hundreds of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants daily. While most variants do not impact the course of the pandemic, some variants pose an increased risk when the acquired mutations allow better evasion of antibody neutralisation or increased transmissibility. Early detection of such high-risk variants (HRVs) is paramount for the proper management of the pandemic. However, experimental assays to determine immune evasion and transmissibility characteristics of new variants are resource-intensive and time-consuming, potentially leading to delays in appropriate responses by decision makers. Presented herein is a novel in silico approach combining spike (S) protein structure modelling and large protein transformer language models on S protein sequences to accurately rank SARS-CoV-2 variants for immune escape and fitness potential. Both metrics were experimentally validated using in vitro pseudovirus-based neutralisation test and binding assays and were subsequently combined to explore the changing landscape of the pandemic and to create an automated Early Warning System (EWS) capable of evaluating new variants in minutes and risk-monitoring variant lineages in near real-time. The system accurately pinpoints the putatively dangerous variants by selecting on average less than 0.3% of the novel variants each week. The EWS flagged all 16 variants designated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as variants of interest (VOIs) if applicable or variants of concern (VOCs) otherwise with an average lead time of more than one and a half months ahead of their designation as such.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234948

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019 required the swift development of a vaccine to address the pandemic. Nonclinical GLP-compliant studies in Wistar Han rats were initiated to assess the local tolerance, systemic toxicity, and immune response to four mRNA vaccine candidates encoding immunogens derived from the spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Vaccine candidates were administered intramuscularly once weekly for three doses at 30 and/or 100 µg followed by a 3-week recovery period. Clinical pathology findings included higher white blood cell counts and acute phase reactant concentrations, lower platelet and reticulocyte counts, and lower RBC parameters. Microscopically, there was increased cellularity (lymphocytes) in the lymph nodes and spleen, increased hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and spleen, acute inflammation and edema at the injection site, and minimal hepatocellular vacuolation. These findings were generally attributed to the anticipated immune and inflammatory responses to the vaccines, except for hepatocyte vacuolation, which was interpreted to reflect hepatocyte LNP lipid uptake, was similar between candidates and resolved or partially recovered at the end of the recovery phase. These studies demonstrated safety and tolerability in rats, supporting SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-LNP vaccine clinical development.

8.
Sci Immunol ; : eade9888, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193420

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant and its sublineages show pronounced viral escape from neutralizing antibodies elicited by vaccination or prior SARS-CoV-2 variant infection owing to over 30 amino acid alterations within the spike (S) glycoprotein. Breakthrough infection of vaccinated individuals with Omicron sublineages BA.1 and BA.2 is associated with distinct patterns of cross-neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). In continuation of our previous work, we characterized the effect of Omicron BA.4/BA.5 S glycoprotein exposure on the neutralizing antibody response upon breakthrough infection in vaccinated individuals and upon variant-adapted booster vaccination in mice. We found that immune sera from triple mRNA-vaccinated individuals with subsequent breakthrough infection during the Omicron BA.4/BA.5 wave showed cross-neutralizing activity against previous Omicron variants BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/BA.5 itself. Administration of a prototypic BA.4/BA.5-adapted mRNA booster vaccine to mice following SARS-CoV-2 wild-type strain-based primary immunization is associated with broader cross-neutralizing activity than a BA.1-adapted booster. While the Omicron BA-1-adapted mRNA vaccine in a bivalent format (wild-type + BA.1) broadens cross-neutralizing activity relative to the BA.1 monovalent booster, cross-neutralization of BA.2 and descendants is more effective in mice boosted with a bivalent wild-type + BA.4/BA.5 vaccine. In naïve mice primary immunization with the bivalent wild-type + Omicron BA.4/BA.5 vaccine induces strong cross-neutralizing activity against Omicron VOCs and previous variants. These findings suggest that when administered as boosters, mono- and bivalent Omicron BA.4/BA.5-adapted vaccines enhance neutralization breadth, and that the bivalent version also has the potential to confer protection to individuals with no pre-existing immunity against SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Sci Immunol ; 7(77): eade2283, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038230

ABSTRACT

BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals after Omicron BA.1 breakthrough infection have strong serum-neutralizing activity against Omicron BA.1, BA.2, and previous SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) yet less against the highly contagious Omicron sublineages BA.4 and BA.5 that have displaced previous variants. Because the latter sublineages are derived from Omicron BA.2, we characterized serum-neutralizing activity of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine triple-immunized individuals who experienced BA.2 breakthrough infection. We demonstrate that sera of these individuals have broadly neutralizing activity against previous VOCs and all tested Omicron sublineages, including BA.2-derived variants BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5. Furthermore, applying antibody depletion, we showed that neutralization of BA.2 and BA.4/BA.5 sublineages by BA.2 convalescent sera is driven to a considerable extent by antibodies targeting the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike glycoprotein. However, neutralization by Omicron BA.1 convalescent sera depends exclusively on antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD). These findings suggest that exposure to Omicron BA.2, in contrast to BA.1 spike glycoprotein, triggers substantial NTD-specific recall responses in vaccinated individuals and thereby enhances the neutralization of BA.4/BA.5 sublineages. Given the current epidemiology with a predominance of BA.2-derived sublineages such as BA.4/BA.5 and rapidly ongoing evolution, these findings helped to inform development of our Omicron BA.4/BA.5-adapted vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Serotherapy
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1828-1832, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960866

ABSTRACT

Distinct SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sublineages have evolved showing increased fitness and immune evasion than the original Omicron variant BA.1. Here, we report the neutralization activity of sera from BNT162b2 vaccinated individuals or unimmunized Omicron BA.1-infected individuals against Omicron sublineages and "Deltacron" variant (XD). BNT162b2 post-dose 3 immune sera neutralized USA-WA1/2020, Omicron BA.1-, BA.2-, BA.2.12.1-, BA.3-, BA.4/5-, and XD-spike SARS-CoV-2s with geometric mean titres (GMTs) of 1335, 393, 298, 315, 216, 103, and 301, respectively; thus, BA.4/5 SARS-CoV-2 spike variant showed the highest propensity to evade vaccine neutralization compared to the original Omicron variants BA.1. BA.1-convalescent sera neutralized USA-WA1/2020, BA.1-, BA.2-, BA.2.12.1-, BA.3-, BA.4/5-, and Deltacron-spike SARS-CoV-2s with GMTs of 15, 430, 110, 109, 102, 25, and 284, respectively. The unique mutation F486V in the BA.4/5 spike contributes to the increased evasion of antibody neutralization by sublineage BA.4/5. The low neutralization titres of vaccinated sera or convalescent sera from BA.1 infected individuals against the emerging and rapidly spreading Omicron BA.4/5 variants provide important results for consideration in the selection of an updated vaccine in the current Omicron wave.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; identifier: NCT04368728.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins , COVID-19 Serotherapy
11.
Adv Ther ; 39(8): 3789-3798, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906546

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: BNT162b1 is a lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Here, we report safety and immune persistence data following a primary two-dose vaccination schedule administered 21 days apart. METHODS: Immune persistence was determined at month 3 in 72 younger participants (aged 18-55 years) and at month 6 in 70 younger and 69 older participants (aged 65-85 years). RESULTS: In younger participants, neutralizing antibody (nAb) geometric mean titers (GMTs) for the 10 and 30 µg dose levels declined from 233 and 254 (21 days after dose 2) to 55 and 87 at month 3, respectively, and to 16 and 27 at month 6, respectively. In older participants, nAb GMTs declined from 80 and 160 (21 days after dose 2) to 10 and 21 at month 6. Overall, higher antibody titers were observed in younger participants, and the 30 µg dose induced higher levels of nAb, which declined more slowly by month 6. No serious adverse events were reported in the vaccine group. CONCLUSION: This study showed BNT162b1 maintains a favorable safety profile in younger and older participants in the 6 months after vaccination. This study further extends our understanding of immune persistence and the safety of the BNT162b1 vaccine as a candidate vaccine in the BioNTech pipeline. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04523571, registered August 21, 2020.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Liposomes , Nanoparticles , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3602, 2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900485

ABSTRACT

The newly emerged Omicron SARS-CoV-2 has several distinct sublineages including BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3. BA.1 accounts for the initial surge and is being replaced by BA.2, whereas BA.3 is at a low prevalence at this time. Here we report the neutralization of BNT162b2-vaccinated sera (collected 1 month after dose 3) against the three Omicron sublineages. To facilitate the neutralization testing, we have engineered the complete BA.1, BA.2, or BA.3 spike into an mNeonGreen USA-WA1/2020 SRAS-CoV-2. All BNT162b2-vaccinated sera neutralize USA-WA1/2020, BA.1-, BA.2-, and BA.3-spike SARS-CoV-2s with titers of >20; the neutralization geometric mean titers (GMTs) against the four viruses are 1211, 336, 300, and 190, respectively. Thus, the BA.1-, BA.2-, and BA.3-spike SARS-CoV-2s are 3.6-, 4.0-, and 6.4-fold less efficiently neutralized than the USA-WA1/2020, respectively. Our data have implications in vaccine strategy and understanding the biology of Omicron sublineages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci Immunol ; 7(75): eabq2427, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874491

ABSTRACT

Omicron is the evolutionarily most distinct severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant of concern (VOC) to date. We report that Omicron BA.1 breakthrough infection in BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals resulted in strong neutralizing activity against Omicron BA.1, BA.2, and previous SARS-CoV-2 VOCs but not against the Omicron sublineages BA.4 and BA.5. BA.1 breakthrough infection induced a robust recall response, primarily expanding memory B (BMEM) cells against epitopes shared broadly among variants, rather than inducing BA.1-specific B cells. The vaccination-imprinted BMEM cell pool had sufficient plasticity to be remodeled by heterologous SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein exposure. Whereas selective amplification of BMEM cells recognizing shared epitopes allows for effective neutralization of most variants that evade previously established immunity, susceptibility to escape by variants that acquire alterations at hitherto conserved sites may be heightened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Envelope Proteins , BNT162 Vaccine , Epitopes , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Memory B Cells , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2
14.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 41, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783982

ABSTRACT

BNT162b2-elicited human sera neutralize the currently dominant Delta SARS-CoV-2 variant. Here, we report the ability of 20 human sera, drawn 2 or 4 weeks after two doses of BNT162b2, to neutralize USA-WA1/2020 SARS-CoV-2 bearing variant spikes from Delta plus (Delta-AY.1, Delta-AY.2), Delta-∆144 (Delta with the Y144 deletion of the Alpha variant), Lambda, B.1.1.519, Theta, and Mu lineage viruses. Geometric mean plaque reduction neutralization titers against Delta-AY.1, Delta-AY.2, and Mu viruses are slightly lower than against USA-WA1/2020, but all sera neutralize the variant viruses to titers of ≥80, and neutralization titers against the Delta-∆144, Lambda, B.1.1.519 and Theta variants not significantly reduced relative to those against USA-WA1/2020. The susceptibility of Delta plus, Lambda, B.1.1.519, Theta, Mu, and other variants to neutralization by the sera indicates that antigenic change has not led to virus escape from vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies and supports ongoing mass immunization with BNT162b2 to control the variants and to minimize the emergence of new variants.

15.
mBio ; 13(2): e0297921, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769827

ABSTRACT

The emergence of several new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in recent months has raised concerns around the potential impact on ongoing vaccination programs. Data from clinical trials and real-world evidence suggest that current vaccines remain highly effective against the alpha variant (B.1.1.7), while some vaccines have reduced efficacy and effectiveness against symptomatic disease caused by the beta variant (B.1.351) and the delta variant (B.1.617.2); however, effectiveness against severe disease and hospitalization caused by delta remains high. Although data on the effectiveness of the primary regimen against omicron (B.1.1.529) are limited, booster programs using mRNA vaccines have been shown to restore protection against infection and symptomatic disease (regardless of the vaccine used for the primary regimen) and maintain high effectiveness against hospitalization. However, effectiveness against infection and symptomatic disease wanes with time after the booster dose. Studies have demonstrated reductions of varying magnitude in neutralizing activity of vaccine-elicited antibodies against a range of SARS-CoV-2 variants, with the omicron variant in particular exhibiting partial immune escape. However, evidence suggests that T-cell responses are preserved across vaccine platforms, regardless of variant of concern. Nevertheless, various mitigation strategies are under investigation to address the potential for reduced efficacy or effectiveness against current and future SARS-CoV-2 variants, including modification of vaccines for certain variants (including omicron), multivalent vaccine formulations, and different delivery mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(4): 485-488.e3, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693797

ABSTRACT

Two doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine are highly effective against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we tested the antibody neutralization against Omicron SARS-CoV-2 after 2 and 3 doses of BNT162b2. Serum from vaccinated individuals was serially tested for its ability to neutralize wild-type SARS-CoV-2 (USA-WA1/2020) and an engineered USA-WA1/2020 bearing the Omicron spike glycoprotein. At 2 or 4 weeks post dose 2, the neutralization geometric mean titers (GMTs) against the wild-type and Omicron-spike viruses were 511 and 20, respectively; at 1 month post dose 3, the neutralization GMTs increased to 1,342 and 336; and at 4 months post dose 3, the neutralization GMTs decreased to 820 and 171. The data support a 3-dose vaccination strategy and provide a glimpse into the durability of the neutralization response against Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
17.
Science ; 375(6581): 678-680, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635719

ABSTRACT

The globally circulating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant of concern Omicron (B.1.1.529) has a large number of mutations, especially in the spike protein, indicating that recognition by neutralizing antibodies may be compromised. We tested Wuhan (Wuhan-Hu-1 reference strain), Beta (B.1.351), Delta (B.1.617.2), or Omicron pseudoviruses with sera of 51 participants who received two or three doses of the messenger RNA (mRNA)-based COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2. After two doses, Omicron-neutralizing titers were reduced >22-fold compared with Wuhan-neutralizing titers. One month after the third vaccine dose, Omicron-neutralizing titers were increased 23-fold relative to their levels after two doses and were similar to levels of Wuhan-neutralizing titers after two doses. The requirement of a third vaccine dose to effectively neutralize Omicron was confirmed with sera from a subset of participants using live SARS-CoV-2. These data suggest that three doses of the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 may protect against Omicron-mediated COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
18.
Nature ; 596(7871): 273-275, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263498

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is continuing to evolve around the world, generating new variants that are of concern on the basis of their potential for altered transmissibility, pathogenicity, and coverage by vaccines and therapeutic agents1-5. Here we show that serum samples taken from twenty human volunteers, two or four weeks after their second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, neutralize engineered SARS-CoV-2 with a USA-WA1/2020 genetic background (a virus strain isolated in January 2020) and spike glycoproteins from the recently identified B.1.617.1, B.1.617.2, B.1.618 (all of which were first identified in India) or B.1.525 (first identified in Nigeria) lineages. Geometric mean plaque reduction neutralization titres against the variant viruses-particularly the B.1.617.1 variant-seemed to be lower than the titre against the USA-WA1/2020 virus, but all sera tested neutralized the variant viruses at titres of at least 1:40. The susceptibility of the variant strains to neutralization elicited by the BNT162b2 vaccine supports mass immunization as a central strategy to end the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic globally.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vero Cells
19.
Nature ; 595(7868): 572-577, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246378

ABSTRACT

BNT162b2, a nucleoside-modified mRNA formulated in lipid nanoparticles that encodes the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S) stabilized in its prefusion conformation, has demonstrated 95% efficacy in preventing COVID-191. Here we extend a previous phase-I/II trial report2 by presenting data on the immune response induced by BNT162b2 prime-boost vaccination from an additional phase-I/II trial in healthy adults (18-55 years old). BNT162b2 elicited strong antibody responses: at one week after the boost, SARS-CoV-2 serum geometric mean 50% neutralizing titres were up to 3.3-fold above those observed in samples from individuals who had recovered from COVID-19. Sera elicited by BNT162b2 neutralized 22 pseudoviruses bearing the S of different SARS-CoV-2 variants. Most participants had a strong response of IFNγ+ or IL-2+ CD8+ and CD4+ T helper type 1 cells, which was detectable throughout the full observation period of nine weeks following the boost. Using peptide-MHC multimer technology, we identified several BNT162b2-induced epitopes that were presented by frequent MHC alleles and conserved in mutant strains. One week after the boost, epitope-specific CD8+ T cells of the early-differentiated effector-memory phenotype comprised 0.02-2.92% of total circulating CD8+ T cells and were detectable (0.01-0.28%) eight weeks later. In summary, BNT162b2 elicits an adaptive humoral and poly-specific cellular immune response against epitopes that are conserved in a broad range of variants, at well-tolerated doses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-2/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Young Adult
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