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1.
Japanese Journal of Environmental Infections ; 37(6):235-238, 2022.
Article in Japanese | Ichushi | ID: covidwho-2207678
2.
Virol J ; 19(1): 188, 2022 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117139

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the performance of the cobas® 6800 system and cobas SARS-CoV-2 & Influenza A/B, a fully automated molecular testing system for influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This enabled an assay in a batch of 96 samples in approximately 3 h. METHODS: An assay was performed using the cobas SARS-CoV-2 & Influenza A/B on the cobas 6800 system for samples collected in four facilities between November 2019 and March 2020 in our previous study. The results were compared with those obtained using the reference methods. RESULTS: Of the 127 samples analyzed, the cobas SARS-CoV-2 & Influenza A/B detected influenza A virus in 75 samples, of which 73 were positive using the reference methods. No false negative results were observed. The overall positive and negative percent agreement for influenza A virus detection were 100.0% and 96.3%, respectively. There were no positive results for the influenza B virus or SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: The cobas 6800 system and cobas SARS-CoV-2 & Influenza A/B showed high accuracy for influenza A virus detection and can be useful for clinical laboratories, especially those that routinely assay many samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques
3.
J Clin Med ; 11(18)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043801

ABSTRACT

Managing mild illness in COVID-19 and predicting progression to severe disease are concerning issues. Here, we investigated the outcomes of Japanese patients with mild COVID-19, and identified triage risk factors for further hospitalization and emergency department (ED) visits at a single tertiary hospital. A triage checklist with 30 factors was used. Patients recommended for isolation were followed up for 10 days for subsequent ED visits or hospital admission. Overall, 338 patients (median age, 44.0; 45% women) visited the clinic 5.0 days (median) after symptom onset. Thirty-six patients were immediately hospitalized following triage; others were isolated. In total, 72 non-hospitalized patients visited the ED during their isolation, and 30 were hospitalized after evaluation for oxygen desaturation. The median ED visit and hospitalization durations after symptom onset were 5.0 and 8.0 days, respectively. The checklist factors associated with hospitalization during isolation were age > 50 years, body mass index > 25 kg/m2, hypertension, tachycardia with pulse rate > 100/min or blood pressure > 135 mmHg at triage, and >3-day delay in hospital visit after symptom onset. No patients died. Altogether, 80% of patients with mild COVID-19 could be safely isolated at home. Age, BMI, underlying hypertension, date after symptom onset, tachycardia, and systolic blood pressure at triage might be related to later hospitalization.

4.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e061172, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029502

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has been a major concern worldwide; however, easily accessible treatment options for patients with mild COVID-19 remain limited. Since the oral intake of Lactococcus lactis strain plasma (LC-Plasma) enhances both the innate and acquired immune systems through the activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), we hypothesised that the oral intake of LC-Plasma could aid the relief or prevention of symptoms in patients with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is an exploratory, multicentre, double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. This study was initiated in December 2021 and concludes in April 2023. The planned number of enrolled subjects is 100 (50 subjects×2 groups); subject enrolment will be conducted until October 2022. Patients with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 will be enrolled and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to group A (oral intake of LC-Plasma-containing capsule, 200 mg/day, for 14 days) or group B (oral intake of placebo capsule, for 14 days). The primary endpoint is the change in subjective symptoms measured by the severity score. Secondary endpoints include SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, biomarkers for pDC activation, serum SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, serum cytokines, interferon and interferon-inducible antiviral effectors and the proportion of subjects with emergency room visits to medical institutions or who are hospitalised. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Clinical Research Review Board of Nagasaki University, in accordance with the Clinical Trials Act of Japan. The study will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, the Clinical Trials Act, and other current legal regulations in Japan. Written informed consent will be obtained from all the participants. The results of this study will be reported in journal publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (registration number: jRCTs071210097).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lactococcus lactis , Humans , Interferons , Lactococcus lactis/physiology , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(10): e0069722, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029466

ABSTRACT

This multicenter, double-blind, phase 2a part of a phase 2/3 study assessed the efficacy and safety of ensitrelvir, a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 3C-like protease inhibitor, in Japanese patients with mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sixty-nine patients were randomized (1:1:1) to orally receive 5-day ensitrelvir fumaric acid (375 mg on day 1 followed by 125 mg daily, or 750 mg on day 1 followed by 250 mg daily) or placebo and followed up until day 28. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the SARS-CoV-2 viral titer. A total of 16, 14, and 17 patients in the ensitrelvir 125 mg, ensitrelvir 250 mg, and placebo groups, respectively, were included in the intention-to-treat population (mean age: 38.0 to 40.4 years). On day 4, the change from baseline in SARS-CoV-2 viral titer (log10 50% tissue culture infectious dose/mL) in patients with positive viral titer and viral RNA at baseline was greater with ensitrelvir 125 mg (mean [standard deviation], -2.42 [1.42]; P = 0.0712) and 250 mg (-2.81 [1.21]; P = 0.0083) versus placebo (-1.54 [0.74]); ensitrelvir treatment reduced SARS-CoV-2 RNA by -1.4 to -1.5 log10 copies/mL versus placebo. The viral titer and viral RNA were similar across groups on and after day 6. The median time to infectious viral clearance decreased by approximately 50 h with ensitrelvir treatment. All adverse events were mild to moderate. Ensitrelvir treatment demonstrated rapid SARS-CoV-2 clearance and was well tolerated (Japan Registry of Clinical Trials identifier: jRCT2031210350).


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , RNA, Viral , Japan , Protease Inhibitors , Antiviral Agents , Enzyme Inhibitors , Double-Blind Method
6.
J Clin Med ; 11(8)2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809954

ABSTRACT

The study objective was to evaluate chest radiographic features that distinguish Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) from other bacterial pneumonias diagnosed based on the bacterial floral analysis with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples directly obtained from pneumonia lesions. Patients were grouped according to the dominant bacterial phenotype; among 120 enrolled patients with CAP, chest CT findings were evaluated in 55 patients diagnosed with a mono-bacterial infection (one bacterial phylotype occupies more than 80% of all phylotypes in a sample) by three authorized respiratory physicians. Among this relatively small sample size of 55 patients with CAP, 10 had MPP, and 45 had other bacterial pneumonia and were categorized into four groups according to their predominant bacterial phylotypes. We created a new scoring system to discriminate MPP from other pneumonias, using a combination of significant CT findings that were observed in the M. pneumoniae group, and age (<60 years) (MPP-CTA scoring system). When the cutoff value was set to 1, this scoring system had a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 93%, a positive predictive value of 73%, and a negative predictive value of 95%. Among the CT findings, centrilobular nodules were characteristic findings in patients with MPP, and a combination of chest CT findings and age might distinguish MPP from other bacterial pneumonias.

7.
J Clin Med ; 11(8)2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785774

ABSTRACT

Patients undergoing hemodialysis are known to exhibit low humoral responses to vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the humoral response to the third dose of BNT162b2 (Pfizer) in patients undergoing hemodialysis. We included 279 patients undergoing hemodialysis (69 ± 11 years, 65% male, median dialysis vintage: 69 months) and 189 healthcare workers (45 ± 13 years, 30% male) who received the third dose of BNT162b2. Anti-spike immunoglobulin G (anti-S IgG) antibody levels were measured 3-4.5 months after the second dose and 3 weeks after the third dose and were compared. Despite a significant difference in anti-S IgG antibody levels after the second dose between the two groups (patients: median 215 U/mL and healthcare workers: median 589 U/mL; p < 0.001), no significant difference in anti-S IgG antibody levels after the third dose was observed (patients: median 19,000 U/mL, healthcare workers: median 21,000 U/mL). Except for dialysis vintage (ρ = 0.209, p < 0.001), no other factors correlated with anti-S IgG antibody levels after the third vaccine dose in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Therefore, a favorable response to the third dose of BNT162b2 was observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis, irrespective of their backgrounds.

8.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(2): 121-126, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756480

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are distributed globally and they cause a range of respiratory symptoms. Since HCoV infection usually causes mild upper respiratory tract disease and currently has no specific therapy, there are limited reports on its features, especially in adults. We aimed to evaluate the features of HCoV infections in clinical settings. Adult patients with respiratory symptoms from October 2014 to September 2019 at Nagasaki Genbaku Isahaya Hospital were enrolled. Multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction as performed for 15 viruses, including HCoVs, and eight bacterial species on the patients' respiratory specimens. A total of 121 cases were recruited with HKU1, OC43, 229E, and NL63 strains in 80, 21, 12, and 11 cases, respectively. The percentage of HCoV-infected patients peaked in winter (47.5%). Symptoms of fever (69.4%), cough (47.9%), and comorbidities of asthma/cough variant asthma (34.7%) were frequently observed. Lymphocytopenia and increased C-reactive protein levels were observed in laboratory tests. Co-infection with other viruses was identified in 38.8% of the cases. In the repeat-positive cases, 42% were repeat positive within 100 days. HCoV-infected patients showed winter seasonality with a high frequency of comorbidity with asthma and co-infections. Re-infection within an early period was suspected, but further consideration is required.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Coronavirus , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Humans
9.
Ren Replace Ther ; 8(1): 8, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753132

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients on hemodialysis (HD) face a high mortality risk from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and they are therefore prioritized for vaccination. However, the efficacy of vaccination in this vulnerable population has not been confirmed. Although age is negatively correlated with serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, humoral responses to vaccination in elderly patients undergoing HD have not been investigated. To address this issue, we evaluated the anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies in nursing home residents on HD after BNT162b2 vaccine administration. Methods: Patients on HD from a nursing home and care workers (controls) receiving two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine between April and May 2021 were enrolled in this study. Those with a prior history of COVID-19 were excluded. Anti-spike protein antibodies were measured with the Elecsys (Roche) immunoassay system. Results: The study included 26 nursing home residents (41% male; median age, 86 years) and 184 care workers (28% male; median age, 45 years). The median HD vintage was 51 months. After two doses of BNT162b2, 73% of the nursing home residents and 99.5% of the control group developed sufficient anti-spike protein antibodies (> 29 U/mL) to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Three weeks after the second dose, median IgG titers of the residents and care workers were 83 [interquartile range (IQR) 17-511] and 1365 (IQR 847-2245) U/mL, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The humoral response to BNT162b2 among elderly HD patients was relatively low; therefore, the optimal vaccination strategy for this population should be studied further to avoid COVID-19 outbreaks in healthcare facilities. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s41100-022-00397-5.

10.
Renal replacement therapy ; 8(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743760

ABSTRACT

Background Patients on hemodialysis (HD) face a high mortality risk from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and they are therefore prioritized for vaccination. However, the efficacy of vaccination in this vulnerable population has not been confirmed. Although age is negatively correlated with serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, humoral responses to vaccination in elderly patients undergoing HD have not been investigated. To address this issue, we evaluated the anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies in nursing home residents on HD after BNT162b2 vaccine administration. Methods Patients on HD from a nursing home and care workers (controls) receiving two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine between April and May 2021 were enrolled in this study. Those with a prior history of COVID-19 were excluded. Anti-spike protein antibodies were measured with the Elecsys (Roche) immunoassay system. Results The study included 26 nursing home residents (41% male;median age, 86 years) and 184 care workers (28% male;median age, 45 years). The median HD vintage was 51 months. After two doses of BNT162b2, 73% of the nursing home residents and 99.5% of the control group developed sufficient anti-spike protein antibodies (> 29 U/mL) to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Three weeks after the second dose, median IgG titers of the residents and care workers were 83 [interquartile range (IQR) 17–511] and 1365 (IQR 847–2245) U/mL, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions The humoral response to BNT162b2 among elderly HD patients was relatively low;therefore, the optimal vaccination strategy for this population should be studied further to avoid COVID-19 outbreaks in healthcare facilities. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s41100-022-00397-5.

11.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(4)2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496133

ABSTRACT

An online nationwide questionnaire survey in Japan revealed that the incidence rate of #COVID19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis in critical COVID-19 cases was extremely low (0.54%) compared with those previously reported in the USA and Europe https://bit.ly/2WdFtPj.

12.
Respir Investig ; 60(1): 154-157, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458829

ABSTRACT

An internet questionnaire survey for investigating empirical antibiotic usage and bacterial superinfections in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in Japan was conducted among the chief physicians of respiratory disease departments of 715 Japanese Respiratory Society-certified hospitals using Google Forms between January 28, 2021 and February 28, 2021. Responses to the questionnaire survey were obtained from 198 of 715 hospitals (27.6%). The survey revealed that the complication incidences of community-acquired pneumonia; hospital-acquired pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia; and sepsis were 2.86, 5.59, and 0.99%, respectively, among patients with moderate/severe and critical COVID-19. Bacterial co-infection and secondary infection rarely affected patients with COVID-19 in Japan, and the isolated pathogens were not specific to these patients. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides for COVID-19 were not observed in several studies. These results might be useful in clinical practice for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Superinfection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Superinfection/drug therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257452, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A few studies on antibody testing have focused on asymptomatic or mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with low initial anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody responses. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody-testing performance was evaluated using blood samples from asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 143 COVID-19 patients during an outbreak on a cruise ship 3 weeks after diagnosis. Simultaneously, a follow-up SARS-CoV-2 genetic test was performed. Samples stored before the COVID-19 pandemic were also used to evaluate the lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFA) and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies against the nucleocapsid and spike proteins were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to confirm which antibodies were influenced on LFA- and ECLIA- false-negative result in crew-member samples. RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive, and negative-predictive values of LFA-detected IgM antibodies were 0.231, 1.000, 1.000, and 0.613, respectively; those of LFA-detected IgG antibodies were 0.483, 0.989, 0.972, and 0.601, respectively; and those of ECLIA-detected total antibodies were 0.783, 1.000, 1.000, and 0.848, respectively. All antibody titers measured using ELISA were significantly lower in blood samples with negative results than in those with positive results in both LFA and ECLIA. In the patients with negative results from the follow-up genetic testing, IgM-, IgG-, and total-antibody positivity rates were 22.9%, 47.6%, and 72.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing has lower performance in asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 patients than required in the guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/trends , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ships
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e053325, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435058

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged worldwide. Although several medications have been approved for treating moderate-to-severe COVID-19, very few treatment strategy has been established for patients with mild COVID-19 who do not require oxygen administration. Clarithromycin is a macrolide antimicrobial agent that has been widely used for bacterial respiratory infectious diseases. Clarithromycin also acts an immunomodulating drug and suppresses cytokine storms in viral respiratory diseases, including influenza. In this study, we aim to evaluate the efficacy of clarithromycin in patients with mild COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is an exploratory, multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. This study was initiated in May 2021 and will end in July 2022. Patients with mild COVID-19 pneumonia who do not require oxygen administration will be enrolled and randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to group A (administration of clarithromycin 800 mg/day), group B (administration of clarithromycin 400 mg/day) or group C (standard treatment without clarithromycin). The planned number of enrolled patients is 60 (20 patients × three groups). The primary endpoint is the number of days required to improve the clinical symptoms as measured by the severity score. Secondary endpoints include days for recovery of the body temperature, proportion of patients with oxygen administration, inflammatory cytokines, viral load, serum immunoglobulins, peripheral blood lymphocytes, blood biomarkers and pneumonia infiltrations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Clinical Research Review Board of Nagasaki University in accordance with the Clinical Trials Act in Japan. The study will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, the Clinical Trials Act and other current legal regulations in Japan. Written informed consent will be obtained from all the participants. The results of this study will be reported as journal publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: jRCTs071210011.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clarithromycin , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Oxygen , Pandemics , Porphyrins , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2353-2369, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347449

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The administration of systemic corticosteroids is a key strategy for improving COVID-19 outcomes. However, evidence is lacking on combination therapies of antiviral agents and systemic corticosteroids. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the combination therapy of favipiravir and methylprednisolone in preventing respiratory failure progression in patients with COVID-19 and non-critical respiratory failure. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, open-label, single-arm phase II study. The patients received favipiravir 3600 mg on the first day, followed by 1600 mg for a total of 10-14 days. Methylprednisolone was administered intravenously at 1 mg/ideal body weight (IBW)/day from days 1 to 5, followed by 0.5 mg/IBW/day from days 6 to 10 if clinically indicated. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) (including noninvasive positive pressure ventilation) or those who met the criteria for tracheal intubation within 14 days of the study treatment initiation (MVCTI-14). RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled and underwent the study treatment. Of them, the MVCTI-14 proportion was 29.2% (90% confidence interval 20.1-39.9, p = 0.200). The proportion of patients who required MV or who died within 30 days was 26.2%, and 30-day mortality was 4.9%. The most significant risk factor for MVCTI-14 was a smoking history (odds ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval 1.2-14.2). The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse event was hyperglycemia, which was observed in 21.7%. CONCLUSION: The MVCTI-14 proportion did not reach a favorable level in the clinical trial setting with the threshold of 35%. However, the proportion of MV or death within 30 days was 26.6%, which might be close to the findings (28.1%) of the RECOVERY trial, which showed the efficacy of dexamethasone for patients with COVID-19 and non-critical respiratory failure. Further evaluation of this combination therapy is needed. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT) identifier jRCTs041200025.

16.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(8): 1743-1748, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323942

ABSTRACT

We evaluated a novel transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction (TRC) assay that can detect influenza A and B within 15 min using nasopharyngeal swab and gargle samples obtained from patients with influenza-like illness, between January and March 2018 and between January and March 2019. Based on the combined RT-PCR and sequencing results, in the nasal swabs, the sensitivity and specificity of TRC for detecting influenza were calculated as 1.000 and 1.000, respectively. In the gargle samples, the sensitivity and specificity of TRC were 0.946 and 1.000, respectively. The TRC assay showed comparable performance to RT-PCR in the detection of influenza viruses.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Adult , Aged , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(10): 1525-1528, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313247

ABSTRACT

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is necessary for confirming a diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we present a COVID-19 case of an elderly woman whose SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests showed false negative repeatedly by evaluating with different sampling sites and procedures. Nasopharyngeal swabs, suctioned sputum, and tongue swabs were collected for SARS-CoV-2-PCR. As for tongue swabs, we compared between two different sample conditions; one obtained with dry condition and the other obtained with moistened condition inside the oral cavity. SARS-CoV-2-PCR showed positive for an extended period with suctioned sputum samples compared with nasopharyngeal swabs and tongue swabs. No SARS-CoV-2 from a nasopharyngeal swab sample obtained on day 46 after symptoms onset was isolated despite high viral load (183740.5 copies/5µL). An adequate production of neutralizing antibody in a serum sample on day 46 was also confirmed. The number of RNA copies of the tongue swab samples was higher with moistened condition than with dry condition. The present case suggests that the difference of sampling site or sample condition can affect PCR results. High loads viral RNA detection does not always correlate with infectivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Female , Humans , Nasopharynx , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral , Specimen Handling
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252964, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264222

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared the quantitative RT-PCR results between nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva specimens. METHODS: A COVID-19 outbreak occurred on a cruise ship at Nagasaki port, Japan. We obtained 123 nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva each from asymptomatic or mild patients in the late phase of infection. RESULTS: The intervals from the diagnosis to the sampling were 25.5 days for nasopharyngeal swabs and 28.9 days for saliva. The positive rate was 19.5% (24/123) for nasopharyngeal swabs and 38.2% (47/123) for saliva (P = 0.48). The quantified viral copies (mean ± SEM copies/5 µl) were 9.3±2.6 in nasopharyngeal swabs and 920±850 in saliva (P = 0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: The advantages of saliva specimens include positive rate improvement and accurate viral load detection. Saliva may be used as a reliable sample for SARS-CoV-2 detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Humans , Specimen Handling
20.
Trials ; 22(1): 309, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this trial is to evaluate the antiviral efficacy, clinical efficacy, and safety of nelfinavir in patients with asymptomatic and mild COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: The study is designed as a multicenter, open-label, blinded outcome assessment, parallel group, investigator-initiated, exploratory, randomized (1:1 ratio) controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients will be enrolled in 10 university and teaching hospitals in Japan. The inclusion and exclusion criteria are as follows: Inclusion criteria: (1) Japanese male or female patients aged ≥ 20 years (2) SARS-CoV-2 detected from a respiratory tract specimen (e.g., nasopharyngeal swab or saliva) using PCR, LAMP, or an antigen test within 3 days before obtaining the informed consent (3) Provide informed consent Exclusion criteria: (1) Symptoms developed ≥ 8 days prior to enrolment (2) SpO2 < 96 % (room air) (3) Any of the following screening criteria: a) ALT or AST ≥ 5 × upper limit of the reference range b) Child-Pugh class B or C c) Serum creatinine ≥ 2 × upper limit of the reference range and creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min (4) Poorly controlled diabetes (random blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥ 7.0%, despite treatment) (5) Unsuitable serious complications based on the assessment of either the principal investigator or the sub-investigator (6) Hemophiliac or patients with a marked hemorrhagic tendency (7) Severe diarrhea (8) Hypersensitivity to the investigational drug (9) Breastfeeding or pregnancy (10) With childbearing potential and rejecting contraceptive methods during the study period from the initial administration of the investigational drug (11) Receiving rifampicin within the previous 2 weeks (12) Participated in other clinical trials and received drugs within the previous 12 weeks (13) Undergoing treatment for HIV infection (14) History of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or wishes to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 (15) Deemed inappropriate (for miscellaneous reasons) based on the assessment of either the principal investigator or the sub-investigator INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients who meet the inclusion criteria and do not meet any of the exclusion criteria will be randomized to either the nelfinavir group or the symptomatic treatment group. The nelfinavir group will be administered 750 mg of nelfinavir orally, three times daily for 14 days (treatment period). However, if a participant tests negative on two consecutive PCR tests of saliva samples, administration of the investigational drug for that participant can be discontinued at the discretion of the investigators. The symptomatic treatment group will not be administered the investigational drug, but all other study procedures and conditions will be the same for both groups for the duration of the treatment period. After the treatment period of 14 days, each group will be followed up for 14 days (observational period). MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint is the time to negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2. During the study period from Day 1 to Day 28, two consecutive negative PCR results of saliva samples will be considered as the negative conversion of the virus. The secondary efficacy endpoints are as follows: For patients with both asymptomatic and mild disease: area under the curve of viral load, half decay period of viral load, body temperature at each time point, all-cause mortality, incidence rate of pneumonia, percentage of patients with newly developed pneumonia, rate of oxygen administration, and the percentage of patients who require oxygen administration. For asymptomatic patients: incidence of symptomatic COVID-19, incidence of fever (≥ 37.0 °C for two consecutive days), incidence of cough For patients with mild disease: incidence of defervescence (< 37.0 °C), incidence of recovery from clinical symptoms, incidence of improvement of each symptom The secondary safety endpoints are adverse events and clinical examinations. RANDOMIZATION: Patients will be randomized to either the nelfinavir group or the symptomatic treatment group using the electric data capture system (1:1 ratio, dynamic allocation based on severity [asymptomatic], and age [< 60 years]). BLINDING (MASKING): Only the assessors of the primary outcome will be blinded (blinded outcome assessment). NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size was determined based on our power analysis to reject the null hypothesis, S (t | z =1) = S (t | z = 0) where S is a survival function, t is time to negative conversion, and z denotes randomization group, by the log-rank test with a two-sided p value of 0.05. We estimated viral dynamic parameters by fitting a nonlinear mixed-effects model to reported viral load data, and simulated our primary endpoint from viral-load time-courses that were realized from sets of viral dynamics parameters sampled from the estimated probability distribution of the parameters (sample size: 2000; 1000 each for randomization group). From this estimation of the hazard ratio between the randomization groups for the event of negative conversion using this simulation dataset, the required number of events for rejecting our null hypothesis with a power of 0.80 felled 97.345 by plugging the estimated hazard ratio, 1.79, in Freedman's equation. Therefore, we decided the required number of randomizations to be 120 after consideration of the frequency of censoring and the anticipated rate of withdrawal caused by factors such as withdrawal of consent. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 6.0 of February 12, 2021. Recruitment started on July 22, 2020 and is anticipated to be completed by March 31, 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered in Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT) ( jRCT2071200023 ) on 21 July 21, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Nelfinavir/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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