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1.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071652

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant (B.529) of COVID-19 caused disease outbreaks worldwide because of its contagious and diverse mutations. To reduce these outbreaks, therapeutic drugs and adjuvant vaccines have been applied for the treatment of the disease. However, these drugs have not shown high efficacy in reducing COVID-19 severity, and even antiviral drugs have not shown to be effective. Researchers thus continue to search for an effective adjuvant therapy with a combination of drugs or vaccines to treat COVID-19 disease. We were motivated to consider melatonin as a defensive agent against SARS-CoV-2 because of its various unique properties. Over 200 scientific publications have shown the significant effects of melatonin in treating diseases, with strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Melatonin has a high safety profile, but it needs further clinical trials and experiments for use as a therapeutic agent against the Omicron variant of COVID-19. It might immediately be able to prevent the development of severe symptoms caused by the coronavirus and can reduce the severity of the infection by improving immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antioxidants , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev ; : 1-21, 2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028787

ABSTRACT

In response to different viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2 infection, pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and bioactive lipids are released from infected and immune cells. One of the most critical bioactive lipids is prostaglandins (PGs) which favor perseverance of inflammation leading to chronic inflammation as PGs act as cytokine amplifiers. PGs trigger the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, activate Th cells, recruit immune cells, and increase the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Therefore, PGs may induce acute and chronic inflammations in various inflammatory disorders and viral infections like SARS-CoV-2. PGs are mainly inhibited by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by blocking cyclooxygenase enzymes (COXs), which involve PG synthesis. NSAIDs reduce inflammation by selective or non-selective blocking activity of COX2 or COX1/2, respectively. In the Covid-19 era, there is a tremendous controversy regarding the use of NSAIDs in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection. As well, the possible role of PGs in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is not well-defined. Thus, the objective of the present study is to review the potential role of PGs and NSAIDs in Covid-19 in a narrative review regarding the preponderance of assorted views.

4.
Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev ; : 1-20, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017140

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is a recent and current infectious pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Covid-19 may lead to the development of acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and extrapulmonary manifestations in severe cases. Down-regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) by the SARS-CoV-2 increases the production of angiotensin II (AngII), which increases the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and placental growth factor (PlGF). PlGF is a critical molecule involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. PlGF is stimulated by AngII in different inflammatory diseases through a variety of signaling pathways. PlGF and AngII are interacted in SARS-CoV-2 infection resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the development of Covid-19 complications. Both AngII and PlGF are interacted and are involved in the progression of inflammatory disorders; therefore, we aimed in this review to highlight the potential role of the PlGF/AngII axis in Covid-19.

5.
J Cell Physiol ; 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013564

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vehicles (EVs) are nanoscale lipid bilayer vesicles that carry biologically active biomolecule cargos like proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) outside of the cell. Blood (serum/plasma), urine, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are all examples of biofluids from which they may be collected. EVs play a vital role in intracellular communication. The molecular signature of EVs largely depends on the parental cell's status. EVs are classified into two groups, (1) exosomes (originated by endogenous route) and (2) microvesicles (originated from the plasma membrane, also known as ectosomes). The quantity and types of EV cargo vary during normal conditions compared to pathological conditions (chronic inflammatory lung diseases or lung cancer). Consequently, EVs contain novel biomarkers that differ based on the cell type of origin and during lung diseases. Small RNAs (e.g., microRNAs) are transported by EVs, which is one of the most rapidly evolving research areas in the field of EVs biology. EV-mediated cargos transport small RNAs that can result in reprograming the target/recipient cells. Multiple chronic inflammatory lung illnesses, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, acute lung injury, and lung cancer, have been demonstrated to be regulated by EV. In this review, we will consolidate the current knowledge and literature on the novel role of EVs and their small RNAs concerning chronic lung diseases (CLDs). Additionally, we will also provide better insight into the clinical and translational impact of mesenchymal stem cells-derived EVs as novel therapeutic agents in treating CLDs.

6.
Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev ; : 1-26, 2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004861

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In Covid-19, there is uncontrolled activation of immune cells with a massive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the development of cytokine storm. These inflammatory changes induce impairment of different organ functions, including the central nervous system (CNS), leading to acute brain injury and substantial changes in the neurotransmitters, including serotonin (5-HT) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which have immunomodulatory properties through modulation of central and peripheral immune responses. In Covid-19, 5-HT neurotransmitters and CGRP could contribute to abnormal and atypical vascular reactivity. Sumatriptan is a pre-synaptic 5-HT (5-HT1D and 5-HT1B) agonist and inhibits the release of CGRP. Both 5-HT and CGRP seem to be augmented in Covid-19 due to underlying activation of inflammatory signaling pathways and hyperinflammation. In virtue of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties with inhibition release of 5-HT and CGRP, Sumatriptan may reduce Covid-19 hyperinflammation. Therefore, Sumatriptan might be a novel potential therapeutic strategy in managing Covid-19. In conclusion, Sumatriptan could be an effective therapeutic strategy in managing Covid-19 through modulation of 5-HT neurotransmitters and inhibiting CGRP.

7.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 14: 878276, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002497

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder of the brain that manifests as dementia, disorientation, difficulty in speech, and progressive cognitive and behavioral impairment. The emerging therapeutic approach to AD management is the inhibition of ß-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1), known to be one of the two aspartyl proteases that cleave ß-amyloid precursor protein (APP). Studies confirmed the association of high BACE1 activity with the proficiency in the formation of ß-amyloid-containing neurotic plaques, the characteristics of AD. Only a few FDA-approved BACE1 inhibitors are available in the market, but their adverse off-target effects limit their usage. In this paper, we have used both ligand-based and target-based approaches for drug design. The QSAR study entails creating a multivariate GA-MLR (Genetic Algorithm-Multilinear Regression) model using 552 molecules with acceptable statistical performance (R 2 = 0.82, Q 2 loo = 0.81). According to the QSAR study, the activity has a strong link with various atoms such as aromatic carbons and ring Sulfur, acceptor atoms, sp2-hybridized oxygen, etc. Following that, a database of 26,467 food compounds was primarily used for QSAR-based virtual screening accompanied by the application of the Lipinski rule of five; the elimination of duplicates, salts, and metal derivatives resulted in a truncated dataset of 8,453 molecules. The molecular descriptor was calculated and a well-validated 6-parametric version of the QSAR model was used to predict the bioactivity of the 8,453 food compounds. Following this, the food compounds whose predicted activity (pKi) was observed above 7.0 M were further docked into the BACE1 receptor which gave rise to the Identification of 4-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-1H-phenalen-1-one (PubChem I.D: 4468; Food I.D: FDB017657) as a hit molecule (Binding Affinity = -8.9 kcal/mol, pKi = 7.97 nM, Ki = 10.715 M). Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation for 150 ns and molecular mechanics generalized born and surface area (MMGBSA) study aided in identifying structural motifs involved in interactions with the BACE1 enzyme. Molecular docking and QSAR yielded complementary and congruent results. The validated analyses can be used to improve a drug/lead candidate's inhibitory efficacy against the BACE1. Thus, our approach is expected to widen the field of study of repurposing nutraceuticals into neuroprotective as well as anti-cancer and anti-viral therapeutic interventions.

8.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 4: 100041, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991197
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e112, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864714

ABSTRACT

India has the third-largest burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the world. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has only exposed the cracks in the Indian healthcare infrastructure concerning HIV. The prevalence of HIV in India is more among the destitute or sections of society shrouded by years of social stigma such as prostitutes, truck drivers, transsexuals and intravenous drug users. National AIDS Control Organisation and The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) organisation have many several efforts over the years to set up counselling and testing centres all over the country and spread awareness about HIV among the masses. COVID-19 pandemic has reversed years of progress made by the same. HIV patients are biologically more susceptible to COVID-19, and the lockdown has led to the loss of jobs, economic crises, shortage of drugs and necessities such as food and housing among this vulnerable population, which can result in lowered CD4-T cell counts in the coming months and make way for dangerous opportunistic infection outbreaks in this population increasing the overall HIV burden of India. This article explores how COVID-19 has impacted India's already existing HIV epidemic and tries to put forth recommendations based on the evidence found to be better prepared in treating the HIV-positive population in India in the face of another catastrophe like the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Delivery of Health Care , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(34): 51384-51397, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864443

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become one of the few leading causes of death and has evolved into a pandemic that disrupts everyone's routine, and balanced way of life worldwide, and will continue to do so. To bring an end to this pandemic, scientists had put their all effort into discovering the vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 infection. For their dedication, now, we have a handful of COVID-19 vaccines. Worldwide, millions of people are at risk due to the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2). Despite the lack of clinically authorized antiviral medications and vaccines for COVID-19, clinical trials of many recognized antiviral agents, their combination, and vaccine development in patients with confirmed COVID-19 are still ongoing. This discovery gave us a chance to get immune to this disease worldwide and end the pandemic. However, the unexpected capacity of mutation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus makes it difficult, like the recent SAS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Therefore, there is a great necessity to spread the vaccination programs and prevent the spread of this dreadful epidemic by identifying and isolating afflicted patients. Furthermore, several COVID-19 tests are thought to be expensive, time-consuming, and require the use of adequately qualified persons to be carried out efficiently. In addition, we also conversed about how the various COVID-19 testing methods can be implemented for the first time in a developing country and their cost-effectiveness, accuracy, human resources requirements, and laboratory facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Developing Countries , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 812565, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771065

ABSTRACT

The fact that viruses cause human cancer dates back to the early 1980s. By reprogramming cellular signaling pathways, viruses encoded protein that can regulate altered control of cell cycle events. Viruses can interact with a superfamily of membrane bound protein, receptor tyrosine kinase to modulate their activity in order to increase virus entrance into cells and promotion of viral replication within the host. Therefore, our study aimed at screening of inhibitors of tyrosine kinase using natural compounds from olive. Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) is an important factor for cancer progression and can be linked to coronavirus. It is evident that over expression of Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) enhance viral endocytosis and proliferation and the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors reduced the period of infection period. Functional network studies were carried out using two major PTKs viz. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and B-lymphocytic kinase (BTK). They are associated with coronavirus in regulation of cell signaling proteins for cellular processes. We virtually screened for 161 library of natural compounds from olive found overexpressed in ALK and BTK in metastatic as well as virus host cells. We have employed both ligand and target-based approach for drug designing by high throughput screening using Multilinear regression model based QSAR and docking. The QSAR based virtual screening of 161 olive nutraceutical compounds has successfully identified certain new hit; Wedelosin, in which, the descriptor rsa (ratio of molecular surface area to the solvent accessible surface area) plays crucial role in deciding Wedelosin's inhibitory potency. The best-docked olive nutraceuticals further investigated for the stability and effectivity of the BTK and ALK during in 150 ns molecular dynamics and simulation. Post simulation analysis and binding energy estimation in MMGBSA further revealed the intensive potential of the olive nutraceuticals in PTK inhibition. This study is therefore expected to widen the use of nutraceuticals from olive in cancer as well as SARS-CoV2 alternative therapy.

12.
Arab J Chem ; 15(1): 103499, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471879

ABSTRACT

Congruous coronavirus drug targets and analogous lead molecules must be identified as quickly as possible to produce antiviral therapeutics against human coronavirus (HCoV SARS 3CLpro) infections. In the present communication, we bear recognized a HIT candidate for HCoV SARS 3CLpro inhibition. Four Parametric GA-MLR primarily based QSAR model (R2:0.84, R2adj:0.82, Q2loo: 0.78) was once promoted using a dataset over 37 structurally diverse molecules along QSAR based virtual screening (QSAR-VS), molecular docking (MD) then molecular dynamic simulation (MDS) analysis and MMGBSA calculations. The QSAR-based virtual screening was utilized to find novel lead molecules from an in-house database of 100 molecules. The QSAR-vS successfully offered a hit molecule with an improved PEC50 value from 5.88 to 6.08. The benzene ring, phenyl ring, amide oxygen and nitrogen, and other important pharmacophoric sites are revealed via MD and MDS studies. Ile164, Pro188, Leu190, Thr25, His41, Asn46, Thr47, Ser49, Asn189, Gln191, Thr47, and Asn141 are among the key amino acid residues in the S1 and S2 pocket. A stable complex of a lead molecule with the HCoV SARS 3CLpro was discovered using MDS. MM-GBSA calculations resulted from MD simulation results well supported with the binding energies calculated from the docking results. The results of this study can be exploited to develop a novel antiviral target, such as an HCoV SARS 3CLpro Inhibitor.

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