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1.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 114, 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viral infections have a history of abrupt and severe eruptions through the years in the form of pandemics. And yet, definitive therapies or preventive measures are not present. Herbal medicines have been a source of various antiviral compounds such as Oseltamivir, extracted using shikimic acid from star anise (Illicium verum) and Acyclovir from Carissa edulis are FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved antiviral drugs. In this study, we dissect the anti-coronavirus infection activity of Cissampelos pareira L (Cipa) extract using an integrative approach. METHODS: We analysed the signature similarities between predicted antiviral agents and Cipa using the connectivity map ( https://clue.io/ ). Next, we tested the anti-SARS-COV-2 activity of Cipa in vitro. Molecular docking analyses of constituents of with key targets of SARS-CoV2 protein viz. spike protein, RNA­dependent RNA­polymerase (RdRp) and 3C­like proteinase. was also performed. A three-way comparative analysis of Cipa transcriptome, COVID-19 BALF transcriptome and CMAP signatures of small compounds was also performed. RESULTS: Several predicted antivirals showed a high positive connectivity score with Cipa such as apcidin, emetine, homoharringtonine etc. We also observed 98% inhibition of SARS-COV-2 replication in infected Vero cell cultures with the whole extract. Some of its prominent pure constituents e.g. pareirarine, cissamine, magnoflorine exhibited 40-80% inhibition. Comparison of genes between BALF and Cipa showed an enrichment of biological processes like transcription regulation and response to lipids, to be downregulated in Cipa while being upregulated in COVID-19. CMAP also showed that Triciribine, torin-1 and VU-0365114-2 had positive connectivity with BALF 1 and 2, and negative connectivity with Cipa. Amongst all the tested compounds, Magnoflorine and Salutaridine exhibited the most potent and consistent strong in silico binding profiles with SARS-CoV2 therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cissampelos , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cissampelos/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311097

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pneumonia has been associated with severe acute hypoxia, sepsis-like states, thrombosis and chronic sequelae including persisting hypoxia and fibrosis. The molecular hypoxia response pathway has been associated with such pathologies and our recent observations on anti-hypoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of whole aqueous extract of Adhatoda Vasica (AV) prompted us to explore its effects on relevant preclinical mouse models. Methods: : In this study, we tested the effect of whole aqueous extract of AV , in murine models of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis, Cecum Ligation and Puncture (CLP) induced sepsis, and siRNA induced hypoxia-thrombosis phenotype. The effect on lung of AV treated naïve mice was also studied at transcriptome level. We also determined if the extract may have any direct effect on SARS-CoV2 replication Results: : Oral administration AV extract attenuates increased airway inflammation, levels of transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1), IL-6, HIF-1α and improves the overall survival rates of mice in the models of pulmonary fibrosis and sepsis and rescues the siRNA induced inflammation and associated blood coagulation phenotypes in mice. We observed downregulation of hypoxia, inflammation, TGF-b1, and angiogenesis genes and upregulation of adaptive immunity-related genes in the lung transcriptome . AV treatment also reduced the viral load in Vero cells infected with SARS-CoV2. Conclusion: Our results provide a scientific rationale for this ayurvedic herbal medicine in ameliorating the hypoxia-hyperinflammation features and highlights the repurposing potential of AV in COVID-19-like conditions.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311095

ABSTRACT

Background: The importance of hypoxia inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α) stabilization in uncontrolled infection and inflammation is widely accepted. Several inhibitors of HIF signalling are in clinical trials for malignancy, ischemia and inflammatory diseases. Increased hypoxia is being reported to be an important modifier for several pathological features of COVID-19 such as impaired immunity, hyper-inflammation, thrombosis, lung injury and sepsis. Methods: : In this study we tested the effect of whole aqueous extract Adhatoda Vasica (AV), that our group has shown to have anti-hypoxic and anti-inflammatory effects, on various outcomes of hypoxic response. Effects of AV were assessed in preclinical mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis, bacterial sepsis and siRNA induced hypoxia-thrombosis phenotype. Therapeutic relevance of AV in current pandemic were also examined through transcriptome and molecular docking analysis. Results: : Oral administration AV extract attenuated the increased levels of airway inflammation, collagen content, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), IL-6, HIF-1α and improved the overall survival rate in bleomycin treated and Cecum Ligation and Puncture (CLP) induced mice. AV treatment also rescued the prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 ( phd 2 ) siRNA induced HIF-1α and associated blood coagulation phenotypes in mice. Transcriptome analysis of lungs of AV treated naïve mice reveal downregulation of hypoxia, inflammation, TGF-β1 and angiogenesis and upregulation of adaptive immunity related genes. These genes and pathways show opposite expression in transcriptome of BALF and PBMCs of SARS-CoV2 infected patient. Molecular docking of AV constituents presents in extract reveal many molecules with low binding energy (≤ -8) to multiple SARS-CoV2 and host target proteins that are relevant in viral entry and replication. Conclusion: Our results provide a scientific rationale for this ayurvedic herbal medicine in ameliorating the anti-inflammatory and anti-HIF-1α effect for potential use in management of COVID19 patients.

4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(3): 1551-1561, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636373

ABSTRACT

During the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, large-scale genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 has been useful in tracking its spread and in identifying variants of concern (VOC). Viral and host factors could contribute to variability within a host that can be captured in next-generation sequencing reads as intra-host single nucleotide variations (iSNVs). Analysing 1347 samples collected till June 2020, we recorded 16 410 iSNV sites throughout the SARS-CoV-2 genome. We found ∼42% of the iSNV sites to be reported as SNVs by 30 September 2020 in consensus sequences submitted to GISAID, which increased to ∼80% by 30th June 2021. Following this, analysis of another set of 1774 samples sequenced in India between November 2020 and May 2021 revealed that majority of the Delta (B.1.617.2) and Kappa (B.1.617.1) lineage-defining variations appeared as iSNVs before getting fixed in the population. Besides, mutations in RdRp as well as RNA-editing by APOBEC and ADAR deaminases seem to contribute to the differential prevalence of iSNVs in hosts. We also observe hyper-variability at functionally critical residues in Spike protein that could alter the antigenicity and may contribute to immune escape. Thus, tracking and functional annotation of iSNVs in ongoing genome surveillance programs could be important for early identification of potential variants of concern and actionable interventions.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , APOBEC-1 Deaminase/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Immune Evasion/genetics , India/epidemiology , Phylogeny , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells
5.
Curr Res Struct Biol ; 3: 290-300, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509714

ABSTRACT

The recent release of SARS-CoV-2 genomic data from several countries has provided clues into the potential antigenic drift of the coronavirus population. In particular, the genomic instability observed in the spike protein necessitates immediate action and further exploration in the context of viral-host interactions. By temporally tracking 527,988 SARS-CoV-2 genomes, we identified invariant and hypervariable regions within the spike protein. We evaluated combination of mutations from SARS-CoV-2 lineages and found that maximum number of lineage-defining mutations were present in the N-terminal domain (NTD). Based on mutant 3D-structural models of known Variants of Concern (VOCs), we found that structural properties such as accessibility, secondary structural type, and intra-protein interactions at local mutation sites are greatly altered. Further, we observed significant differences between intra-protein networks of wild-type and Delta mutant, with the latter showing dense intra-protein contacts. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations of D614G mutant spike structure with hACE2 further revealed dynamic features with 47.7% of mutations mapping on flexible regions of spike protein. Thus, we propose that significant changes within spike protein structure have occurred that may impact SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, and repositioning of vaccine candidates is required to contain the spread of COVID-19 pathogen.

6.
Front Genet ; 12: 714185, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497072

ABSTRACT

Host genetic variants can determine their susceptibility to COVID-19 infection and severity as noted in a recent Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS). Given the prominent genetic differences in Indian sub-populations as well as differential prevalence of COVID-19, here, we compute genetic risk scores in diverse Indian sub-populations that may predict differences in the severity of COVID-19 outcomes. We utilized the top 100 most significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a GWAS by Pairo-Castineira et al. determining the genetic susceptibility to severe COVID-19 infection, to compute population-wise polygenic risk scores (PRS) for populations represented in the Indian Genome Variation Consortium (IGVC) database. Using a generalized linear model accounting for confounding variables, we found that median PRS was significantly associated (p < 2 x 10-16) with COVID-19 mortality in each district corresponding to the population studied and had the largest effect on mortality (regression coefficient = 10.25). As a control we repeated our analysis on randomly selected 100 non-associated SNPs several times and did not find significant association. Therefore, we conclude that genetic susceptibility may play a major role in determining the differences in COVID-19 outcomes and mortality across the Indian sub-continent. We suggest that combining PRS with other observed risk-factors in a Bayesian framework may provide a better prediction model for ascertaining high COVID-19 risk groups and to design more effective public health resource allocation and vaccine distribution schemes.

7.
Pharmacogenomics ; 22(10): 603-618, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278319

ABSTRACT

Aim: Numerous drugs are being widely prescribed for COVID-19 treatment without any direct evidence for the drug safety/efficacy in patients across diverse ethnic populations. Materials & methods: We analyzed whole genomes of 1029 Indian individuals (IndiGen) to understand the extent of drug-gene (pharmacogenetic), drug-drug and drug-drug-gene interactions associated with COVID-19 therapy in the Indian population. Results: We identified 30 clinically significant pharmacogenetic variants and 73 predicted deleterious pharmacogenetic variants. COVID-19-associated pharmacogenes were substantially overlapped with those of metabolic disorder therapeutics. CYP3A4, ABCB1 and ALB are the most shared pharmacogenes. Fifteen COVID-19 therapeutics were predicted as likely drug-drug interaction candidates when used with four CYP inhibitor drugs. Conclusion: Our findings provide actionable insights for future validation studies and improved clinical decisions for COVID-19 therapy in Indians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Interactions/genetics , Genome/genetics , Genotype , Humans , India , Pharmacogenetics/methods , Pharmacogenomic Testing/methods , Pharmacogenomic Variants/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
8.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 99, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pneumonia has been associated with severe acute hypoxia, sepsis-like states, thrombosis and chronic sequelae including persisting hypoxia and fibrosis. The molecular hypoxia response pathway has been associated with such pathologies and our recent observations on anti-hypoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of whole aqueous extract of Adhatoda Vasica (AV) prompted us to explore its effects on relevant preclinical mouse models. METHODS: In this study, we tested the effect of whole aqueous extract of AV, in murine models of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis, Cecum Ligation and Puncture (CLP) induced sepsis, and siRNA induced hypoxia-thrombosis phenotype. The effect on lung of AV treated naïve mice was also studied at transcriptome level. We also determined if the extract may have any effect on SARS-CoV2 replication. RESULTS: Oral administration AV extract attenuates increased airway inflammation, levels of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), IL-6, HIF-1α and improves the overall survival rates of mice in the models of pulmonary fibrosis and sepsis and rescues the siRNA induced inflammation and associated blood coagulation phenotypes in mice. We observed downregulation of hypoxia, inflammation, TGF-ß1, and angiogenesis genes and upregulation of adaptive immunity-related genes in the lung transcriptome. AV treatment also reduced the viral load in Vero cells infected with SARS-CoV2. CONCLUSION: Our results provide a scientific rationale for this ayurvedic herbal medicine in ameliorating the hypoxia-hyperinflammation features and highlights the repurposing potential of AV in COVID-19-like conditions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Justicia , Lung/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Bleomycin , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cecum/microbiology , Cecum/surgery , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Hypoxia/genetics , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Justicia/chemistry , Ligation , Lung/metabolism , Lung/microbiology , Lung/pathology , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Pneumonia/genetics , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Sepsis/genetics , Sepsis/metabolism , Sepsis/microbiology , Transcriptome
9.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 184, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808195

ABSTRACT

Background: India first detected SARS-CoV-2, causal agent of COVID-19 in late January 2020, imported from Wuhan, China. From March 2020 onwards, the importation of cases from countries in the rest of the world followed by seeding of local transmission triggered further outbreaks in India. Methods: We used ARTIC protocol-based tiling amplicon sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 (n=104) from different states of India using a combination of MinION and MinIT sequencing from Oxford Nanopore Technology to understand how introduction and local transmission occurred. Results: The analyses revealed multiple introductions of SARS-CoV-2 genomes, including the A2a cluster from Europe and the USA, A3 cluster from Middle East and A4 cluster (haplotype redefined) from Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia) and Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan). The local transmission and persistence of genomes A4, A2a and A3 was also observed in the studied locations. The most prevalent genomes with patterns of variance (confined in a cluster) remain unclassified, and are here proposed as A4-clade based on its divergence within the A cluster. Conclusions: The viral haplotypes may link their persistence to geo-climatic conditions and host response. Multipronged strategies including molecular surveillance based on real-time viral genomic data is of paramount importance for a timely management of the pandemic.

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