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1.
Ir J Psychol Med ; 38(2): 140-144, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096528

ABSTRACT

India is a de facto continent in the garb of a country. COVID-19 is an unprecedented global pandemic spanning continents. Being the second most populous country in the world, experts regard how India deals with the outbreak will have enormous impact on the world's ability to deal with it. The country has been in lockdown since March 25, 2020 until the current time of early May 2020, and despite several challenges, there has been early success. The major conflict now is the health benefits weighed up against the deleterious social and economic consequences of prolonged lockdown, that is, life versus livelihood. This unprecedented calamity could potentially cause or exacerbate various psychiatric disorders. It is recognized that lifestyle changes and limited screen time may help reduce mental health difficulties. Considering the physical barriers to consultation, development of telemedicine services is needed. This pandemic, like other previous pandemics, will pass, and until this happens, we must remain extremely vigilant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology ; 25(4):676-682, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2090539

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have suffered during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, with worsening of both motor and nonmotor symptoms. We conducted this study to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) and concerns of PD patients and their caregivers. Method(s): The study was conducted in mixed method, where the baseline data was taken by face-to-face interview during the unlock phase of December 2020 to March 2021, when there was no lockdown. This included demography, Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stage, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire for Carer (PDQ-Carer). During the second wave of COVID-19 (April-June 2021), telephonic interview was conducted using Depression, Anxiety Stress Scale- 21 Items (DASS-21), PDQ-8, PDQ-Carer, and open-ended questions regarding their concerns. Result(s): Compared with the baseline data, PDQ-8 and PDQ-Carer scores showed significant worsening during the second wave. DASS-21 scores had significant correlation with PDQ-Carer and PDQ-8 scores. Female patients reported poorer QoL. Caregivers of non-vaccinated patients had worse PDQ-Carer Strain scores. There was no significant association between worsening of motor symptoms and PDQ-8 and PDQ-Carer scores. More than 80% patients and 70% caregivers reported anxiety and depression. Their concerns were regarding difficulties due to social isolation, restriction of activity, and financial constraints. Additionally, there were worries about patient care, vaccination, and recurrence of the wave. Conclusion(s): The QoL of both patients and their caregivers were affected by the pandemic. A significant proportion had anxiety and depression, and this correlated with QoL. There were some important concerns on various aspects of the pandemic. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

3.
Dementia e Neuropsychologia ; 16(3):284-291, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2079867

ABSTRACT

Due to the disruption of normal flow of treatment during the restrictions related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the health status of persons with dementia (PwD) and their caregivers’ burden might worsen. Objective: The article aims to find out the health status of PwD and caregivers’ burden during the peak of second wave of COVID-19 and make a comparison with the preceding trough phase. Methods: The study was conducted with 53 PwD and their caregivers in two phases. On their visit to the hospital during the unlock phase (phase 1), data were collected for CDR from PwD, and NPI-Q and ZBI from their caregivers. During the peak of second wave (phase 2), data were collected for NPI-Q, ZBI, and DASS-21 through telephonic communication, and statistical analyses were performed on the collected data. Results: Significantly higher caregiver burden (p=0.001) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) [both in severity (p=0.019) and distress (p=0.013)] were observed among the respondents during the peak of second wave of the pandemic as compared to the preceding trough phase. Positive correlations were observed between the caregiver burden and depression, anxiety, and stress of the caregivers (p<0.001) and between the severity of dementia in PwD and caregiver burden (p<0.001) for both the first and second phases. Positive correlation was also observed between the severity of dementia in PwD and depression (p=0.042) and stress (p=0.023) of caregivers. Conclusions: Significant increase in the burden and distress was observed among caregivers due to increased NPSs of PwD during the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022, Associacao Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. All rights reserved.

4.
Stem Cells and COVID-19 ; : 71-94, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2027796

ABSTRACT

From December 2019, COVID-19 pandemic has hit the human civilization in an unprecedented way. It has taken more than five million lives in just a span of two years. Two major mechanisms via which COVID-19 affects us are either via direct respiratory disorder and lung failure or otherwise via delayed flare of immune systems more prevalently known as the cytokine storm. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be a potential therapeutic agent against mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 via direct differentiation into pulmonary epithelial cells as well as via antiinflammatory paracrine activities. MSCs are also can be useful to replicate COVID-19 infection in an in vitro organ model. In current study, we are systematically reviewing and finding out the potential applications of MSCs which could help mankind to combat COVID-19. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

5.
National Journal of Community Medicine ; 13(8):559-564, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026902

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine hesitancy has been recognized as a public health issue which needs to be addressed urgently. With reopening of school unvaccinated children might become major carriers of COVID-19. An assessment of the determinants of vaccine hesitancy will aid in the acceleration of vaccine administration among children. Objective: This study aims to explore parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Surat and determine factors associated with it. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study in Surat among 250 participants selected from Rural and Urban field practice area by Systematic Random Sampling. Data collection was done by data collectors in an interview during the month of January and February, 2022. Univariate analysis was done, followed by Chi square test to establish associations. Predictors were determined by Binomial Logistic Regression. Results: Mean age of population was 31.3 + 10.7 years. Vaccine Hesitancy was recorded in 154 (61.6%) participants. Urban address (p=0.013), Full Vaccination status of parents (<0.001) and Perceived Benefits of vaccine to the child (p=0.001) were significant predictors of Vaccine Hesitancy. Conclusion: High proportion of Vaccine hesitancy was found in this study. Interventions can be planned on the basis of factors affecting Vaccine Hesitancy. © The Authors retain the copyrights of this article.

6.
7.
Software - Practice and Experience ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013796

ABSTRACT

Several global health incidents and evidences show the increasing likelihood of pandemics (large-scale outbreaks of infectious disease), which has adversely affected all aspects of human lives. It is essential to develop an analytics framework by extracting and incorporating the knowledge of heterogeneous data-sources to deliver insights for enhancing preparedness to combat the pandemic. Specifically, human mobility, travel history, and other transport statistics have significantly impact on the spread of any infectious disease. This article proposes a spatio-temporal knowledge mining framework, named STOPPAGE, to model the impact of human mobility and other contextual information over the large geographic areas in different temporal scales. The framework has two key modules: (i) spatio-temporal data and computing infrastructure using fog/edge based architecture;and (ii) spatio-temporal data analytics module to efficiently extract knowledge from heterogeneous data sources. We created a pandemic-knowledge graph to discover correlations among mobility information and disease spread, a deep learning architecture to predict the next hotspot zones. Further, we provide necessary support in home-health monitoring utilizing Femtolet and fog/edge based solutions. The experimental evaluations on real-life datasets related to COVID-19 in India illustrate the efficacy of the proposed methods. STOPPAGE outperforms the existing works and baseline methods in terms of accuracy by (Formula presented.) (18–21)% in predicting hotspots and reduces the power consumption of the smartphone significantly. The scalability study yields that the STOPPAGE framework is flexible enough to analyze a huge amount of spatio-temporal datasets and reduces the delay in predicting health status compared to the existing studies. © 2022 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

8.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 26(7): 650-657, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for child contacts of TB patients, a globally accepted intervention, needs to be evaluated in diverse geographical regions.OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent of IPT coverage and adherence, to ascertain its sociodemographic and programmatic correlates and to explore existing constraints from service providers and beneficiaries´ perspectives.METHODS: A mixed-method study was conducted in January-June 2021 in Paschim Bardhaman District, West Bengal, India. Quantitative assessment was done among 280 child contacts of TB cases registered between January and December 2020 in all TB units in the district. Primary caregivers were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Two focus group discussions with all senior treatment supervisors of the district and in-depth interviews with 12 purposively selected caregivers of the children were undertaken. Qualitative data were analysed thematically.RESULTS: Only 48.9% (137/280) of child contacts were screened; 58.9% (165/280) were initiated on IPT and 40% (66/165) adhered to a full course. Coverage of the full 6-month IPT among total study participants was 23.6% (66/280). Household visits by health personnel and initial screening significantly predicted increased coverage. Programmatic inadequacies, poor understanding, social stigma and COVID situation were major constraints.CONCLUSION: Coverage of IPT remains unacceptably low and requires health system strengthening for effectively implementing current recommendations of TB preventive treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Family Characteristics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Personnel , Humans , Isoniazid/therapeutic use
9.
Physics of Fluids ; 34(5), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1890392

ABSTRACT

Superspreading events and overdispersion are hallmarks of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the specific roles and influence of established viral and physical factors related to the mechanisms of transmission, on overdispersion, remain unresolved. We, therefore, conducted mechanistic modeling of SARS-CoV-2 point-source transmission by infectious aerosols using real-world occupancy data from more than 100 000 social contact settings in ten US metropolises. We found that 80% of secondary infections are predicted to arise from approximately 4% of index cases, which show up as a stretched tail in the probability density function of secondary infections per infectious case. Individual-level variability in viral load emerges as the dominant driver of overdispersion, followed by occupancy. We then derived an analytical function, which replicates the simulated overdispersion, and with which we demonstrate the effectiveness of potential mitigation strategies. Our analysis, connecting the mechanistic understanding of SARS-CoV-2 transmission by aerosols with observed large-scale epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 outbreaks, adds an important dimension to the mounting body of evidence with regard to airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and thereby emerges as a powerful tool toward assessing the probability of outbreaks and the potential impact of mitigation strategies on large scale disease dynamics. © 2022 Author(s).

10.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880614
11.
Digital Government: Research and Practice ; 2(1), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1772444

ABSTRACT

Managing the ongoing COVID-19 (aka Coronavirus) pandemic has presented both challenges and new opportunities for urban local body administrators. With the Indian government's Smart City mission taking firm roots in some of the Indian cities, the authors share their learnings and experiences of how a Smart City Integrated Command and Control Centre (ICCC) can be extended to become the nerve centre of pandemic-related operations and management, leveraging the Smart City IoT infrastructure such as surveillance cameras for monitoring and enforcement. The authors are of the opinion that the lessons learned and experiences gained from these cities are extremely valuable and can easily be replicated in other cities in a relatively short time period, thus providing a standard and uniform method across the nation for handling epidemics in the future. © 2020 ACM.

13.
Environmental Science-Water Research & Technology ; : 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1740488

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, wastewater-based epidemiology has emerged as a promising approach for monitoring SARS-CoV-2 prevalence on a community-level. Despite much being known about the utility of making these measurements in large wastewater treatment plants, little is known about the correlation with finer geographic resolution, such as those obtained through sewershed sub-area catchments. This study aims to identify community wastewater surveillance characteristics between sewershed areas that affect the strength of the association of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in a metropolitan area. For this, wastewater from 17 sewershed areas were sampled in Louisville/Jefferson County, Kentucky (USA), from August 2020 to April 2021 (N = 727), which covered approximately 97% of the county's households. Solids were collected from the treatment plants from November 2020 to December 2020 (N = 42). Our results indicate that the sewersheds differ in SARS-CoV-2 trends;however, high pairwise correlation spatial trends were not observed, and the mean SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations of smaller upstream community sewershed areas did not differ from their respective treatment centers. Solid samples could only be collected at treatment plants, therefore not allowing us to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 abundance as a function of the sewershed scale. The population size sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 concentration detection is non-linear: at low population levels the measures are either too sensitive and generate a high level of variability, or at high population levels the estimates are dampened making small changes in community infection levels more difficult to discern. Our results suggest selecting sampling sites that include a wide population range. This study and its findings may inform other system-wide strategies for sampling wastewater for estimating non-SARS-CoV-2 targets.

15.
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry ; 12(3):3488-3500, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1368134

ABSTRACT

In this article, we propose a health monitoring system, especially focused on detecting myocardial infarction chances and raising the alarm when required. The device would be able to identify malfunctioning of the heart using the ECG signals taken using ARDUINO-based portable and affordable sensors. Here, we have described the development of two major schemes of health monitoring. We have developed a method of identifying the maloperation of the heart by using the second lead of the ECG signal. This method is based on a modified Poincaré analysis, which effectively distinguishes the diseased heart ECG from the normal heart ECG signals. The Poincaré-based scheme is tested using five different diseased ECG signals from the PTB database, and a high disease identification efficiency of 82% is achieved. Here we further propose implementing this analysis within the ARDUINO-based health monitoring board so that patients would get an opportunity to monitor their heart condition at some regular intervals staying at home and follow up with a physician if any abnormality is detected. This entire scheme is more useful, especially under this COVID 19, pandemic situation when moving outside the home is a challenge in itself. Hence, the proposed device would be helpful during this global crisis, especially for people residing in rural and semi-urban regions. © 2021 by the authors.

16.
2021 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1364983

ABSTRACT

The year 2020, has seen the advent of a pandemic that has affected the world as we know it globally. The origin reportedly from Wuhan, China, this pandemic is caused by COVID-19 which belongs to the family of Coronavirus. The increase of infection and mortality has shot up exponentially and has left mankind bewildered amongst the remains of the unseen disaster. During these times of hardship mankind has to face with a series of emotions. Analysis of all these emotions becomes a primary target for the well-being of an individual and mankind as a whole. The main motive of our study is to analyze these emotions correctly. Gathering these big chunks of data about this study from different social platforms like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, etc. plays a major role. For this study we will be considering only the corona virus related tweets from Twitter. Analysis of all these tweets will give us a proper insight about the real emotions that the people has to face during these COVID-19 times. The main objective is to work with multinomial attributed to assess the sentiments more precisely. The next step is cleaning the data and labelling them for further processing. Hereafter a model is developed which is used to access the data and then predict the actual sentiment behind the tweet. The data is assessed using the binary-class and multi-class property with the cross-data evaluation of various machine learning algorithms to form the model. After tedious training of models, it is seen that the proposed model gives us a 96.58% accuracy with Support Vector Machine algorithm.

17.
Ieee Network ; 35(3):42-47, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1313955

ABSTRACT

The intangible nature of the COVID-19 virus and the changing strains have created panic and fear among people, leading to an increase in discrimination against COVID-19 positive patients and their families in society. Moreover, the spread of infodemics creates daunting challenges for peaceful livelihood and fighting the pandemic. In this article, we propose CovChain, a blockchain-based Internet of Things solution for identity preservation and anti-infodemics. Toward this, we propose storing patient information on a private blockchain and exploiting its immutability feature, which helps combat infodemics. We further propose encrypting the data using a distributed attribute-based encryption (d-ABE) scheme to facilitate restricted access to information based on the clearance level. We also propose reducing the load on the miners by using geographically-aware fog nodes. As data in a blockchain is immutable, we delete the blocks corresponding to recovering patients and store the information in a forked CovChain. The cardinality of the two chains helps in maintaining a global census by the cloud servers. Through system implementations, we present the feasibility of CovChain on resource-constrained devices within tolerable delays of 1 s, upload and download rates of 35 kb/s, and CPU (single-core) and memory utilization under 70 percent.

18.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277669

ABSTRACT

Introduction-Septic pulmonary emboli are common in intravenous drug users. Often, they are accompanied by right-sided endocarditis. We present an uncommon case of sepsis with pulmonary emboli without endocarditis and complicated by Lemierre's syndrome. Case-A 30-year-old man presented with five days of high fevers, dyspnea, sore throat, nonproductive cough, polyarthralgia, and myalgias. He worked as a butcher, had no sick contacts or recent travel, was a nonsmoker, did not vape or use illicit drugs, and had no rash. He was febrile at 102°F, tachycardic, hypotensive, tachypneic, and hypoxic to 84% on room air. The examination was notable for bilaterally decreased breath sounds and no murmurs were heard. Investigations revealed leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, lactic acidosis, elevated inflammatory markers (D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein), and transaminases. Initial chest-Xray (CXR) revealed prominent interstitial markings (Fig-1A). Oxygen supplementation by high flow nasal cannula and empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics were initiated. COVID-19 testing was negative twice. Blood cultures grew group-C beta-hemolytic streptococci (GCS), and follow-up CXR (Fig-1B) and computed tomogram (CT) thorax (Fig-1C) were concerning for pulmonary septic emboli along with bilateral consolidations. Both transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms were negative for vegetations. The antibiotic regimen was modified according to sensitivity. Further patient interview revealed that he was handling meat with an open, deep finger wound a month ago. Due to persistent left-sided neck pain, a CT neck was performed revealing left sided internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis (Fig-1D). Hence, anaerobic antibiotic coverage was added considering Lemierre's syndrome. Further, bilateral upper extremity deep and superficial venous thrombi were detected and the patient was started on therapeutic anticoagulation. Hypercoagulability workup was concerning for antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with a positive anti-cardiolipin antibody screen. A follow-up CT thorax revealed numerous bilateral septic emboli, with some cavitating (Fig-1E). The patient improved over the next week and was slowly weaned off supplemental oxygen. He was discharged home on Coumadin and completed four weeks of antibiotics. He was doing well at his follow-up. Discussion-Invasive disease due to GCS is uncommon, with an incidence of 4%-6%. Occasionally, they have been implicated for septicemia in meat handlers and with exposure to animals. GCS bacteremia can result in multiple system involvement, presenting with symptomatology like our patient. Beta-lactam antibiotics remain an effective treatment. Lemierre's syndrome is rare, and commonly associated with pharyngitis and anaerobes, though rarely, septic emboli and streptococci have been implicated.

19.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277234

ABSTRACT

Introduction-Daptomycin is a unique lipopeptide antibiotic that exerts bactericidal action by cell membrane action potential disruption. It is used in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant gram-positive organisms. However, acute eosinophilic pneumonitis (AEP) remains a rare life-threatening adverse effect of daptomycin therapy. Case-A 65-year-old gentleman with a history of diabetes mellitus presented with palpitations, dyspnea, and lethargy for four days. He did not have any fever but noted occasional nonproductive cough. He was discharged a week prior after a two-week hospitalization where he underwent treatment for MRSA septic knee arthritis, which was complicated by MRSA bacteremia and COVID-19 pneumonia. He was discharged on daptomycin and ceftaroline maintenance therapy. He was afebrile, but had tachycardia, tachypnea, and was hypoxic to 88% on room air. Pulmonary examination revealed bibasal decreased breath sounds. Investigations were notable for leukocytosis with peripheral eosinophilia of 27%. COVID-19 testing was negative twice. His chest-Xray revealed patchy bilateral opacities (Fig-1A), similar to his prior admission (Fig-1B). A computed tomography pulmonary angiogram showed bilateral, multifocal, irregular opacities (Fig-1C). Supplemental oxygen was started and daptomycin was promptly discontinued. Intravenous methylprednisolone was also initiated. Over the next two days, the patient improved significantly, was weaned off supplemental oxygen, and peripheral eosinophilia also improved. He was discharged after four days, on a prednisone taper and only ceftaroline was completed for a total of eight weeks. Discussion-Daptomycin induced AEP may present with dyspnea, fever, peripheral eosinophilia and bilateral multifocal pulmonary infiltrates, commonly within two to four weeks of drug exposure. 25% or more eosinophilia on bronchoalveolar lavage specimen is very specific. This adverse effect of daptomycin appears to be more time-dependent than dose-dependent. Daptomycin is inactivated by pulmonary surfactant, and this altered lipid biochemistry may precipitate T-helper-2 cell-mediated interleukin-5 elaboration. This triggers eosinophil recruitment and their pulmonary migration, resulting in the characteristic pulmonary inflammatory response. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. We considered other differentials, including fungal or parasitic infections, recent COVID-19 pneumonia, and vasculitides;however, considering our patient's compatible presentation, and with a Naranjo algorithm score of six, daptomycin induced AEP was hypothesized to be the probable etiology. Management involves early recognition and discontinuation of daptomycin, with corticosteroids being used often to augment clinical recovery. The rarity of the presentation necessitates awareness and vigilance, as early discontinuation often results in an excellent prognosis and leads to future avoidance of daptomycin, whereas a missed diagnosis may be life-threatening.

20.
IEEE Internet of Things Journal ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1263766

ABSTRACT

The atmospheric buoyancy and intangible nature of fatal communicable viruses lead to rapid transmissions among individuals, resulting in global pandemics. Strategic lockdowns and mandatory social distancing are immediate solutions in such scenarios. However, this leads to operational disruptions in education, manufacturing, economy, transportation, governance, and community. Although technological assistance is beneficial in overcoming such issues, the current Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure has limitations. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the possible IoT-based solutions that have the capacity of combating the COVID-19-like viruses. We highlight the societal impacts due to pandemics and identify the specific lacunae in current IoT solutions. We also provide comprehensive detail on how to overcome the challenges along with directions towards the possible technological trends for future research. Compared to existing reviews, our work offers a holistic view of the cause, effects, and the possible solutions that are existing, along with already existing solutions that can be customized to serve the special needs during the pandemic. IEEE

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