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Indian J Med Res ; 153(1 & 2): 93-114, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000418


BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a global public health crisis and research groups worldwide are engaged in developing vaccine candidates to curb its transmission, with a few vaccines having progressed to advanced stages of clinical trials. The aim of this systematic review was to compare immunogenicity and protective efficacy of various SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates tested in non-human primate (NHP) models. METHODS: Literature on effect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in NHP models reported on PubMed and preprint platforms (medRxiv and bioRxiv) till October 22, 2020, was searched with the following terms: coronavirus vaccine, COVID-19 vaccine, SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, nonhuman primate, and rhesus macaque. RESULTS: Our search yielded 19 studies, which reported immune response elicited by 18 vaccine candidates in NHP. All the vaccines induced detectable neutralizing antibody (NAb) titres in the serum of vaccinated animals, with some showing effective viral clearance from various organs. The vaccinated animals also showed nil to mild histopathological changes in their lungs compared to placebo groups in the trials that performed necropsy. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlighted onset of quick immunogenicity and protective efficacy of mRNA-1273, followed by Ad26.CoV2.S, NVX-CoV2373, BNT162b2, RBD and BBV152 vaccine candidates in preclinical trials as compared to the others. NHP data also showed correlation with clinical trial data available for a few vaccines. Preclinical trials of COVID-19 vaccine candidates in NHPs yielded promising results, with some candidates faring better than others.

COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Primates , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , Disease Models, Animal , Macaca mulatta