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3.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S110-S111, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1563941

ABSTRACT

Background Incidence of blood stream infections (BSI) among NICU admissions remains high, with associated mortality and morbidity. Due to COVID-19, there are increased infection prevention (IP) measures in NICUs including universal masking for all healthcare workers and families, social distancing, visitation restrictions, and increased attention to hand hygiene. These measures may also affect late-onset infection rates and offer understanding of novel interventions for prevention. Methods We examined infection rates during the 24 months prior to implementation of COVID-19 IP measures (PRE-period) compared to the months after implementation from April 2020 (POST-period). Late-onset infections were defined as culture-confirmed infection of the blood, urine, or identification of respiratory viral pathogens. An interrupted time series analysis of infection per 1000 patient days was performed based on a change-point Poisson regression with a lagged dependent variable and the number of patient days used as offsets. Each month was treated as independent with additional analysis using an observation-driven model to account for serial dependence. Results Multicenter analysis to date included all infants cared for at three centers (Level 3 and 4) from 2018-2020. Monthly BSI rates decreased in the POST-period at the three centers (Figure 1). At all centers actual BSI rate was lower than the expected rate in the POST-period (Figure 2). The combined BSI rate per 1000 patient days was 41% lower compared to the rate prior to implementation (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.84, P=0.004) (Table 1). In subgroup analysis by birthweight, infants< 1000g had a 39% reduction in BSI (P=0.023), for1000-1500g patients there was a 44% reduction (P=0.292) and in those > 1500g there was a 53% reduction (0.083). Figure 1. PRE and POST MASKING and other COVID Infection Prevention Measures and Monthly BSI Rates. Figure 2. PRE and POST MASKING and other COVID infection prevention measures and BSI Trends. At all centers actual BSI rate was lower than the expected rate for that center in the POST period. UVA and Duke showed a baseline decrease and Pennsylvania Hospital showed a downward trend in infection rates. There was an approximate decrease in expected bloodstream infection events at Pennsylvania Hospital by 7 events, at UVA by 22 events and at Duke by 23 events. Overall, all three centers saw a decrease in their expected infections after COVID-19 infection prevention measures were implemented. Table 1. Percent reduction in Bloodstream Infection at each center. Conclusion In this preliminary analysis, we found a reduction of BSI after the implementation of COVID-19 infection prevention measures. Additionally, there were fewer viral infections, though there were a limited number of episodes. Further analyses of multicenter data and a larger number of patients will elucidate the significance of these findings and the role some of these IP measures such as universal masking may have in infection prevention in the NICU. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

4.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE, Grey literature | ID: grc-750509

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important to determine exposure and immunity to SARS-CoV-2 within both individuals and populations. We completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We tested 834 pre-pandemic samples collected in 2019 and 15 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors to validate our assay, which has a ~1% false positive rate. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate seroprevalence within the community.

5.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(6): 594-600, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052819

ABSTRACT

Importance: Maternally derived antibodies are a key element of neonatal immunity. Understanding the dynamics of maternal antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy and subsequent transplacental antibody transfer can inform neonatal management as well as maternal vaccination strategies. Objective: To assess the association between maternal and neonatal SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody concentrations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study took place at Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A total of 1714 women delivered at the study site between April 9 and August 8, 2020. Maternal and cord blood sera were available for antibody measurement for 1471 mother/newborn dyads. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2. Main Outcomes and Measures: IgG and IgM antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody concentrations and transplacental transfer ratios were analyzed in combination with demographic and clinical data. Results: The study cohort consisted of 1714 parturient women, with median (interquartile range) age of 32 (28-35) years, of whom 450 (26.3%) identified as Black/non-Hispanic, 879 (51.3%) as White/non-Hispanic, 203 (11.8%) as Hispanic, 126 (7.3%) as Asian, and 56 (3.3%) as other race/ethnicity. Among 1471 mother/newborn dyads for which matched sera were available, SARS-CoV-2 IgG and/or IgM antibodies were detected in 83 of 1471 women (6%; 95% CI, 5%-7%) at the time of delivery, and IgG was detected in cord blood from 72 of 83 newborns (87%; 95% CI, 78%-93%). IgM was not detected in any cord blood specimen, and antibodies were not detected in any infant born to a seronegative mother. Eleven infants born to seropositive mothers were seronegative: 5 of 11 (45%) were born to mothers with IgM antibody only, and 6 of 11 (55%) were born to mothers with significantly lower IgG concentrations compared with those found among mothers of seropositive infants. Cord blood IgG concentrations were positively correlated with maternal IgG concentrations (r = 0.886; P < .001). Placental transfer ratios more than 1.0 were observed among women with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections as well as those with mild, moderate, and severe coronavirus disease 2019. Transfer ratios increased with increasing time between onset of maternal infection and delivery. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, maternal IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were transferred across the placenta after asymptomatic as well as symptomatic infection during pregnancy. Cord blood antibody concentrations correlated with maternal antibody concentrations and with duration between onset of infection and delivery. Our findings demonstrate the potential for maternally derived SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies to provide neonatal protection from coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cohort Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy
6.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690482

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important for determining SARS-CoV-2 exposures within both individuals and populations. We validated a SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain serological test using 834 pre-pandemic samples and 31 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors. We then completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate exposure to SARS-CoV-2 within the community.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Pandemics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
7.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663600

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important to determine exposure and immunity to SARS-CoV-2 within both individuals and populations. We completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We tested 834 pre-pandemic samples collected in 2019 and 15 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors to validate our assay, which has a ~1% false positive rate. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate seroprevalence within the community.

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