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1.
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819635
2.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 577-588, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775595

ABSTRACT

Background: Whether long coronavirus disease pertains to children as well is not yet clear. Methods: The authors performed a survey in children suffering from persistent symptoms since initial infection. A total of 510 children infected between January 2020 and January 2021 were included. Results: Symptoms such as fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pain, rashes and heart palpitations and issues such as lack of concentration and short-term memory problems were particularly frequent and confirm previous observations, suggesting that they may characterize this condition. Conclusion: A better comprehension of long coronavirus disease is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Child , Fatigue/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 551-571, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745178

ABSTRACT

There is limited evidence available on the long-term impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. In this article, the authors analyze the recent evidence on pediatric long Covid and lessons learnt from a pediatric post-Covid unit in Rome, Italy. To gain a better understanding of the concerns raised by parents and physicians in relation to the potential long-term consequences of this novel infection, it is important to recognize that long-term effect of a post-infectious disease is not a new phenomenon.


The authors analyze the recent evidence on pediatric long Covid and lessons learnt from a pediatric post-Covid unit in Rome, Italy. Also, we analyze the long-term effects of other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Eur Respir J ; 59(2)2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children remain poorly characterised. This study aimed to assess long-term outcomes in children previously hospitalised with COVID-19 and associated risk factors. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of children (≤18 years old) admitted to hospital with confirmed COVID-19. Children admitted between 2 April 2020 and 26 August 2020 were included. Telephone interviews used the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) COVID-19 Health and Wellbeing Follow-up Survey for Children. Persistent symptoms (>5 months) were further categorised by system(s) involved. RESULTS: 518 out of 853 (61%) eligible children were available for the follow-up assessment and included in the study. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) age was 10.4 (3-15.2) years and 270 (52.1%) were girls. Median (IQR) follow-up since hospital discharge was 256 (223-271) days. At the time of the follow-up interview 126 (24.3%) participants reported persistent symptoms, among which fatigue (53, 10.7%), sleep disturbance (36, 6.9%) and sensory problems (29, 5.6%) were the most common. Multiple symptoms were experienced by 44 (8.4%) participants. Risk factors for persistent symptoms were: older age "6-11 years" (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.37-5.75) and "12-18 years" (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.41-5.4), and a history of allergic diseases (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.67). CONCLUSIONS: A quarter of children experienced persistent symptoms months after hospitalisation with acute COVID-19 infection, with almost one in 10 experiencing multisystem involvement. Older age and allergic diseases were associated with higher risk of persistent symptoms at follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Aged , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 50, 2022 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A substantial portion of people with COVID-19 subsequently experience lasting symptoms including fatigue, shortness of breath, and neurological complaints such as cognitive dysfunction many months after acute infection. Emerging evidence suggests that this condition, commonly referred to as long COVID but also known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) or post-COVID-19 condition, could become a significant global health burden. MAIN TEXT: While the number of studies investigating the post-COVID-19 condition is increasing, there is no agreement on how this new disease should be defined and diagnosed in clinical practice and what relevant outcomes to measure. There is an urgent need to optimise and standardise outcome measures for this important patient group both for clinical services and for research and to allow comparing and pooling of data. CONCLUSIONS: A Core Outcome Set for post-COVID-19 condition should be developed in the shortest time frame possible, for improvement in data quality, harmonisation, and comparability between different geographical locations. We call for a global initiative, involving all relevant partners, including, but not limited to, healthcare professionals, researchers, methodologists, patients, and caregivers. We urge coordinated actions aiming to develop a Core Outcome Set (COS) for post-COVID-19 condition in both the adult and paediatric populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Disease Progression , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307479

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health Organization has recently recognized Long COVID, calling the international medical community to strengthen research and comprehensive care of patients with this condition. However, if Long COVID pertains to children as well is not yet clear. Methods An anonymous, online survey was developed by an organization of parents of children suffering from persisting symptoms since initial infection. Parents were asked to report signs and symptoms, physical activity and mental health issues. Only children with symptoms persisting for more than four weeks were included. Results 510 children were included (56.3% females) infected between January 2020 and January 2021. At their initial COVID-19 infection, 22 (4.3%) children were hospitalized. Overall, children had persisting COVID-19 for a mean of 8.2 months (SD 3.9). Most frequent symptoms were: Tiredness and weakness (444 patients, 87.1% of sample), Fatigue (410, 80.4%), Headache (401, 78.6%), Abdominal pain (387, 75.9%), Muscle and joint pain (309, 60.6%), Post-exertional malaise (274, 53.7%), rash (267, 52.4%). 484 (94.9%) children had had at least four symptoms. 129 (25.3%) children have suffered constant COVID-19 infection symptoms, 252 (49.4%) have had periods of apparent recovery and then symptoms returning, and 97 (19.0%) had a prolonged period of wellness followed by symptoms. Only 51 (10.0%) children have returned to previous levels of physical activity. Parents reported a significant prevalence of Neuropsychiatric symptoms. Conclusions Our study provides further evidence on Long COVID in children. Symptoms like fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pain, rashes and heart palpitations, and mental health issues like lack of concentration and short memory problems, were particularly frequent and confirm previous observations, suggesting that they may characterize this condition. A better comprehension of Long COVID is urgently needed..

7.
SSRN;
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-326233

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Recent data suggest that many people experience Post COVID-19 Condition (Long COVID) following the acute phase of the SaRS CoV-2 infection. At present there is no agreement on what patient health outcomes should be measured in Post COVID-19 Condition. We aimed to identify core outcomes for Post COVID-19 Condition that stakeholders considered critical to assess in all research studies and clinical practice. Methods: We conducted a multi-step study: (1) review of outcomes reported in studies of Post COVID-19 Condition to develop a list of potential core outcomes;(2) outcomes were then grouped, using the COMET taxonomy, to present in a consensus process;(3) a two-round online international modified Delphi consensus process, including 3 stakeholder groups (‘people with Post COVID-19 Condition and their carers’, ‘healthcare professionals and researchers’ and ‘healthcare professionals and researchers with Post COVID-19 Condition) to prioritise outcomes;and (4) an international online consensus meeting to finalize the core outcome set. Consensus ‘in’ was defined, a priori, as 80% or more of each stakeholder group rating an outcome as critical (‘7-9’ on a 9-point scale). Patient engagement and global outreach activities were undertaken at all stages of the project. Findings: 1535 participants from 71 countries, representing six continents, were involved in the online modified Delphi process, with 1148 participating in both rounds (75% completion rate). Eleven of 24 outcomes met consensus ‘in’ criteria after the two Delphi rounds and consensus meeting: fatigue or exhaustion;pain;post-exertion symptoms;work/occupational and study changes;survival;and “functioning, symptoms and conditions” for each of the following outcomes: cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous system, cognition, mental and physical. ‘Recovery’ outcome was added ‘a-priori’ as a part of previously published COS on COVID-19. Interpretation: This international study resulted in the development of a COS for Post COVID-19 Condition using a rigorous methodology. The generated consensus-based list of core outcomes should be assessed in clinical research and practice settings. The next step for the development of this COS will be to determine which measurement instruments best measure these outcomes. Funding Information: Funding by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (Grant COV-LT2-0072) supporting the second stage of the process. Declaration of Interests: None to declare.

8.
ProQuest Central;
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-328232

ABSTRACT

Although the majority of people with Covid-19 will experience mild to moderate symptoms and will recover fully, there is now increasing evidence that a significant proportion will experience persistent symptoms for months after the acute phase of the illness. These symptoms include, among others, fatigue, problems breathing, lack of smell and taste, headaches, and depression and anxiety. It is also clear the virus has lasting fluctuating multiorgan sequelae, including affecting not only the respiratory system but also the heart, liver, and nervous system. We present a protocol for a living systematic review that aims to synthesize the evidence on the prevalence and characteristics of post-acute COVID-19. The living systematic review will be updated regularly, approximately every 6 months, as new evidence emerges. We will include studies that follow up at least 100 people with Covid-19 at 12 or more weeks post Covid-19 onset, with no restrictions regarding country, setting, or language. We will use descriptive statistics and, for outcomes reported in two or more studies, we will use meta-analyses to estimate prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the exact method. Heterogeneity between estimates will be assessed using the I2 statistic. Our findings will also be presented as infographics to facilitate transcription to lay audiences. Ultimately, we aim to support the work of policy makers, practitioners, and patients when planning rehabilitation for those recovering from Covid-19. The protocol has been registered with PROSPERO (  CRD42020211131, 25/09/2020).

9.
N Engl J Med ; 385(1): 11-22, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence is urgently needed to support treatment decisions for children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. METHODS: We performed an international observational cohort study of clinical and outcome data regarding suspected MIS-C that had been uploaded by physicians onto a Web-based database. We used inverse-probability weighting and generalized linear models to evaluate intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) as a reference, as compared with IVIG plus glucocorticoids and glucocorticoids alone. There were two primary outcomes: the first was a composite of inotropic support or mechanical ventilation by day 2 or later or death; the second was a reduction in disease severity on an ordinal scale by day 2. Secondary outcomes included treatment escalation and the time until a reduction in organ failure and inflammation. RESULTS: Data were available regarding the course of treatment for 614 children from 32 countries from June 2020 through February 2021; 490 met the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C. Of the 614 children with suspected MIS-C, 246 received primary treatment with IVIG alone, 208 with IVIG plus glucocorticoids, and 99 with glucocorticoids alone; 22 children received other treatment combinations, including biologic agents, and 39 received no immunomodulatory therapy. Receipt of inotropic or ventilatory support or death occurred in 56 patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids (adjusted odds ratio for the comparison with IVIG alone, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 1.82) and in 17 patients who received glucocorticoids alone (adjusted odds ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.22 to 1.33). The adjusted odds ratios for a reduction in disease severity were similar in the two groups, as compared with IVIG alone (0.90 for IVIG plus glucocorticoids and 0.93 for glucocorticoids alone). The time until a reduction in disease severity was similar in the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that recovery from MIS-C differed after primary treatment with IVIG alone, IVIG plus glucocorticoids, or glucocorticoids alone, although significant differences may emerge as more data accrue. (Funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Program and others; BATS ISRCTN number, ISRCTN69546370.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Confidence Intervals , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunomodulation , Male , Propensity Score , Regression Analysis , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While it is now apparent clinical sequelae (long COVID) may persist after acute COVID-19, their nature, frequency and aetiology are poorly characterised. This study aims to regularly synthesise evidence on long COVID characteristics, to help inform clinical management, rehabilitation strategies and interventional studies to improve long-term outcomes. METHODS: A living systematic review. Medline, CINAHL (EBSCO), Global Health (Ovid), WHO Global Research on COVID-19 database, LitCovid and Google Scholar were searched till 17 March 2021. Studies including at least 100 people with confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19 at 12 weeks or more post onset were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the tool produced by Hoy et al. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and meta-analyses to estimate prevalence. RESULTS: A total of 39 studies were included: 32 cohort, 6 cross-sectional and 1 case-control. Most showed high or moderate risk of bias. None were set in low-income countries and few included children. Studies reported on 10 951 people (48% female) in 12 countries. Most included previously hospitalised people (78%, 8520/10 951). The longest mean follow-up time was 221.7 (SD: 10.9) days post COVID-19 onset. Over 60 physical and psychological signs and symptoms with wide prevalence were reported, most commonly weakness (41%; 95% CI 25% to 59%), general malaise (33%; 95% CI 15% to 57%), fatigue (31%; 95% CI 24% to 39%), concentration impairment (26%; 95% CI 21% to 32%) and breathlessness (25%; 95% CI 18% to 34%). 37% (95% CI 18% to 60%) of patients reported reduced quality of life; 26% (10/39) of studies presented evidence of reduced pulmonary function. CONCLUSION: Long COVID is a complex condition with prolonged heterogeneous symptoms. The nature of studies precludes a precise case definition or risk evaluation. There is an urgent need for prospective, robust, standardised, controlled studies into aetiology, risk factors and biomarkers to characterise long COVID in different at-risk populations and settings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020211131.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , COVID-19/complications , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 8: 100186, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study sought to establish the long-term effects of Covid-19 following hospitalisation. METHODS: 327 hospitalised participants, with SARS-CoV-2 infection were recruited into a prospective multicentre cohort study at least 3 months post-discharge. The primary outcome was self-reported recovery at least ninety days after initial Covid-19 symptom onset. Secondary outcomes included new symptoms, disability (Washington group short scale), breathlessness (MRC Dyspnoea scale) and quality of life (EQ5D-5L). FINDINGS: 55% of participants reported not feeling fully recovered. 93% reported persistent symptoms, with fatigue the most common (83%), followed by breathlessness (54%). 47% reported an increase in MRC dyspnoea scale of at least one grade. New or worse disability was reported by 24% of participants. The EQ5D-5L summary index was significantly worse following acute illness (median difference 0.1 points on a scale of 0 to 1, IQR: -0.2 to 0.0). Females under the age of 50 years were five times less likely to report feeling recovered (adjusted OR 5.09, 95% CI 1.64 to 15.74), were more likely to have greater disability (adjusted OR 4.22, 95% CI 1.12 to 15.94), twice as likely to report worse fatigue (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.31) and seven times more likely to become more breathless (adjusted OR 7.15, 95% CI 2.24 to 22.83) than men of the same age. INTERPRETATION: Survivors of Covid-19 experienced long-term symptoms, new disability, increased breathlessness, and reduced quality of life. These findings were present in young, previously healthy working age adults, and were most common in younger females. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

13.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 51(9): 1107-1120, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term sequalae of COVID-19 remain poorly characterized. We assessed persistent symptoms in previously hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and assessed potential risk factors. METHODS: Data were collected from patients discharged from 4 hospitals in Moscow, Russia between 8 April and 10 July 2020. Participants were interviewed via telephone using an ISARIC Long-term Follow-up Study questionnaire. RESULTS: 2,649 of 4755 (56%) discharged patients were successfully evaluated, at median 218 (IQR 200, 236) days post-discharge. COVID-19 diagnosis was clinical in 1291 and molecular in 1358. Most cases were mild, but 902 (34%) required supplemental oxygen and 68 (2.6%) needed ventilatory support. Median age was 56 years (IQR 46, 66) and 1,353 (51.1%) were women. Persistent symptoms were reported by 1247 (47.1%) participants, with fatigue (21.2%), shortness of breath (14.5%) and forgetfulness (9.1%) the most common symptoms and chronic fatigue (25%) and respiratory (17.2%) the most common symptom categories. Female sex was associated with any persistent symptom category OR 1.83 (95% CI 1.55 to 2.17) with association being strongest for dermatological (3.26, 2.36 to 4.57) symptoms. Asthma and chronic pulmonary disease were not associated with persistent symptoms overall, but asthma was associated with neurological (1.95, 1.25 to 2.98) and mood and behavioural changes (2.02, 1.24 to 3.18), and chronic pulmonary disease was associated with chronic fatigue (1.68, 1.21 to 2.32). CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of adults admitted to hospital due to COVID-19 reported persistent symptoms 6 to 8 months after discharge. Fatigue and respiratory symptoms were most common, and female sex was associated with persistent symptoms.


Subject(s)
Aftercare , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Russia/epidemiology
15.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(11): 1095-1096, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335949
18.
Eur Respir J ; 59(2)2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children remain poorly characterised. This study aimed to assess long-term outcomes in children previously hospitalised with COVID-19 and associated risk factors. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of children (≤18 years old) admitted to hospital with confirmed COVID-19. Children admitted between 2 April 2020 and 26 August 2020 were included. Telephone interviews used the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) COVID-19 Health and Wellbeing Follow-up Survey for Children. Persistent symptoms (>5 months) were further categorised by system(s) involved. RESULTS: 518 out of 853 (61%) eligible children were available for the follow-up assessment and included in the study. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) age was 10.4 (3-15.2) years and 270 (52.1%) were girls. Median (IQR) follow-up since hospital discharge was 256 (223-271) days. At the time of the follow-up interview 126 (24.3%) participants reported persistent symptoms, among which fatigue (53, 10.7%), sleep disturbance (36, 6.9%) and sensory problems (29, 5.6%) were the most common. Multiple symptoms were experienced by 44 (8.4%) participants. Risk factors for persistent symptoms were: older age "6-11 years" (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.37-5.75) and "12-18 years" (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.41-5.4), and a history of allergic diseases (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.67). CONCLUSIONS: A quarter of children experienced persistent symptoms months after hospitalisation with acute COVID-19 infection, with almost one in 10 experiencing multisystem involvement. Older age and allergic diseases were associated with higher risk of persistent symptoms at follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Aged , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(1): 1-11, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Russian population are unknown. Information on the differences between laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed COVID-19 in real-life settings is lacking. METHODS: We extracted data from the medical records of adult patients who were consecutively admitted for suspected COVID-19 infection in Moscow between 8 April and 28 May 2020. RESULTS: Of the 4261 patients hospitalized for suspected COVID-19, outcomes were available for 3480 patients (median age, 56 years; interquartile range, 45-66). The most common comorbidities were hypertension, obesity, chronic cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Half of the patients (n = 1728) had a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while 1748 had a negative RT-PCR but had clinical symptoms and characteristic computed tomography signs suggestive of COVID-19. No significant differences in frequency of symptoms, laboratory test results, and risk factors for in-hospital mortality were found between those exclusively clinically diagnosed or with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR. In a multivariable logistic regression model the following were associated with in-hospital mortality: older age (per 1-year increase; odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.06), male sex (1.71; 1.24-2.37), chronic kidney disease (2.99; 1.89-4.64), diabetes (2.1; 1.46-2.99), chronic cardiovascular disease (1.78; 1.24-2.57), and dementia (2.73; 1.34-5.47). CONCLUSIONS: Age, male sex, and chronic comorbidities were risk factors for in-hospital mortality. The combination of clinical features was sufficient to diagnose COVID-19 infection, indicating that laboratory testing is not critical in real-life clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Moscow , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(10): 3546-3567, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275424

ABSTRACT

Concerns for anaphylaxis may hamper severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunization efforts. We convened a multidisciplinary group of international experts in anaphylaxis composed of allergy, infectious disease, emergency medicine, and front-line clinicians to systematically develop recommendations regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immediate allergic reactions. Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, the World Health Organizstion (WHO) global coronavirus database, and the gray literature (inception, March 19, 2021) were systematically searched. Paired reviewers independently selected studies addressing anaphylaxis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate allergy, and accuracy of allergy testing for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine allergy. Random effects models synthesized the data to inform recommendations based on the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, agreed upon using a modified Delphi panel. The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine anaphylaxis is 7.91 cases per million (n = 41,000,000 vaccinations; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.02-15.59; 26 studies, moderate certainty), the incidence of 0.15 cases per million patient-years (95% CI 0.11-0.2), and the sensitivity for PEG skin testing is poor, although specificity is high (15 studies, very low certainty). We recommend vaccination over either no vaccination or performing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient screening allergy testing for individuals without history of a severe allergic reaction to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient, and a shared decision-making paradigm in consultation with an allergy specialist for individuals with a history of a severe allergic reaction to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient. We recommend further research to clarify SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/vaccine excipient testing utility in individuals potentially allergic to SARS-CoV2 vaccines or their excipients.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Consensus , GRADE Approach , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
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