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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2444-e2449, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and dengue fever are difficult to distinguish given shared clinical and laboratory features. Failing to consider COVID-19 due to false-positive dengue serology can have serious implications. We aimed to assess this possible cross-reactivity. METHODS: We analyzed clinical data and serum samples from 55 individuals with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To assess dengue serology status, we used dengue-specific antibodies by means of lateral-flow rapid test, as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, we tested SARS-CoV-2 serology status in patients with dengue and performed in-silico protein structural analysis to identify epitope similarities. RESULTS: Using the dengue lateral-flow rapid test we detected 12 positive cases out of the 55 (21.8%) COVID-19 patients versus zero positive cases in a control group of 70 healthy individuals (P = 2.5E-5). This includes 9 cases of positive immunoglobulin M (IgM), 2 cases of positive immunoglobulin G (IgG), and 1 case of positive IgM as well as IgG antibodies. ELISA testing for dengue was positive in 2 additional subjects using envelope protein directed antibodies. Out of 95 samples obtained from patients diagnosed with dengue before September 2019, SARS-CoV-2 serology targeting the S protein was positive/equivocal in 21 (22%) (16 IgA, 5 IgG) versus 4 positives/equivocal in 102 controls (4%) (P = 1.6E-4). Subsequent in-silico analysis revealed possible similarities between SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in the HR2 domain of the spike protein and the dengue envelope protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support possible cross-reactivity between dengue virus and SARS-CoV-2, which can lead to false-positive dengue serology among COVID-19 patients and vice versa. This can have serious consequences for both patient care and public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue Virus , Antibodies, Viral , Cross Reactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(5): 100264, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189051

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, various genetic variants have been described. The B.1.1.7 variant, which emerged in England during December 2020, is associated with increased infectivity. Therefore, its pattern of spread is of great importance. The Israeli government established three national programs: massive RT-PCR testing, focused surveillance in nursing homes, and robust prioritized vaccination with BNT162b2. To define the impact of the aforementioned programs, we analyze data from ∼300,000 RT-PCR samples collected from December 6, 2020, to February 10, 2021. We reveal that the B.1.1.7 is 45% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20%-60%) more transmissible than the wild-type strain and has become the dominant strain in Israel within 3.5 weeks. Despite the rapid increase in viral spread, focused RT-PCR testing and prioritized vaccination programs are capable of preventing the spread of the B.1.1.7 variant in the elderly. Therefore, proactive surveillance programs, combined with prioritized vaccination, are achievable and can reduce severe illness and subsequent death.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Young Adult
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3461, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078603

ABSTRACT

Despite ongoing efforts to characterize the host response toward SARS-CoV-2, a major gap in our knowledge still exists regarding the magnitude and duration of the humoral response. Analysis of the antibody response in mild versus moderate/severe patients, using our new developed quantitative electrochemiluminescent assay for detecting IgM/IgA/IgG antibodies toward SARS-CoV-2 antigens, revealed a rapid onset of IgG/IgA antibodies, specifically in moderate/severe patients. IgM antibodies against the viral receptor binding domain, but not against nucleocapsid protein, were detected at early stages of the disease. Furthermore, we observed a marked reduction in IgM/IgA antibodies over-time. Adapting our assay for ACE2 binding-competition, demonstrated that the presence of potentially neutralizing antibodies is corelated with IgG/IgA. Finally, analysis of the cytokine profile in COVID-19 patients revealed unique correlation of an IL-12p70/IL33 and IgG seroconversion, which correlated with disease severity. In summary, our comprehensive analysis has major implications on the understanding and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interleukin-12/blood , Interleukin-33/blood , Seroconversion/physiology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
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