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Med Mycol ; 60(9)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008595


We describe presenting clinical and imaging manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated Rhino-oculo-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) in a hospital setting during the second wave of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in India. Data on the presenting manifestations were collected from 1 March to 31 May 2021. Associations between clinical and imaging findings were explored, specifically: (1) the presence or absence of orbital pain and infiltration of a superior orbital fissure on imaging; (2) the presence of unilateral facial nerve palsy and pterygopalatine fossa infiltration and geniculate ganglion signal on contrast magnetic resonance imaging, and (3) vision loss and optic nerve findings on imaging. Orbital pain was reported by 6/36 subjects. A fixed, frozen eye with proptosis and congestion was documented in 26 (72%), complete vision loss in 23 (64%), and a unilateral lower motor neuron facial nerve palsy in 18 (50%). No association was found between the presence of orbital pain and superior orbital fissure infiltration on imaging. The ipsilateral geniculate ganglion was found to enhance more profoundly in 7/11 subjects with facial palsy and available magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the ipsilateral pterygopalatine fossa was found infiltrated in 14. Among 23 subjects with complete loss of vision, 9 (39%) demonstrated long-segment bright signal in the posterior optic nerve on diffusion MR images. We conclude that orbital pain might be absent in SARS-CoV-2-associated ROCM. Facial nerve palsy is more common than previously appreciated and ischemic lesions of the posterior portion of the optic nerve underlie complete vision loss.

Unique clinical and radiological manifestations identified in the outbreak of Rhino-oculo-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) during the second epidemic wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection included the common occurrence of facial paralysis, frequent absence of ocular pain, and long segments of optic nerve damage.

COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Mucormycosis/veterinary , Pain/veterinary , Paralysis/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(9): 763-770, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792080


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has been declared as a pandemic. COVID-19 patients may require transport for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes intra- or interhospital or transport from an outside hospital to a healthcare facility. Transport of critically ill or infectious patients is always challenging and involves the integration of various tasks and manpower. The adverse events have been attributed to various factors such as a multidisciplinary team and lack of appropriate communication among team members, absence of equipment, or failure during transport, apart from physiological alteration inherent to the disease of the patient. The transport of COVID-19 patients carries an additional risk of not only the disease itself but also due to the risk of its transmission to the transport team. The human-to-human transmission of the virus can occur via respiratory droplets. So, the person involved in the transport of such patients shall be at risk and warrants appropriate steps for their safety. Appropriate planning by a well-trained transport team is an essence for the safe transport of the suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients. The Transport Medicine Society guidelines present consensus guidelines for the safe transport of COVID-19 patients. DISCLAIMER: These consensus guidelines are applicable for the safe transport of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 adult patients. These recommendations should be used in conjunction with medical management guidelines and advisories related to COVID-19. These recommendations should be adapted to the local policies prevalent at the workplace and also per agreement among the hospitals for transport (agreement between referring and receiving facilities). With the emergence of new scientific evidence, these guidelines may require modification. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Munjal M, Ahmed SM, Garg R, Das S, Chatterjee N, Mittal K, et al. The Transport Medicine Society Consensus Guidelines for the Transport of Suspected or Confirmed COVID-19 Patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(9):763-770.

Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(11): 1280-1285, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526937


INTRODUCTION: There is strong evidence for the use of corticosteroid in the management of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, there is still uncertainty about the timing of corticosteroids. We undertook a modified Delphi study to develop expert consensus statements on the early identification of a subset of patients from non-severe COVID-19 who may benefit from using corticosteroids. METHODS: A modified Delphi was conducted with two anonymous surveys between April 30, 2021, and May 3, 2021. An expert panel of 35 experts was selected and invited to participate through e-mail. The consensus was defined as >70% votes in multiple-choice questions (MCQ) on Likert-scale type statements, while strong consensus as >90% votes in MCQ or >50% votes for "very important" on Likert-scale questions in the final round. RESULTS: Twenty experts completed two rounds of the survey. There was strong consensus for the increased work of breathing (95%), a positive six-minute walk test (90%), thorax computed tomography severity score of >14/25 (85%), new-onset organ dysfunction (using clinical or biochemical criteria) (80%), and C-reactive protein >5 times the upper limit of normal (70%) as the criteria for patients' selection. The experts recommended using oral or intravenous (IV) low-dose corticosteroids (the equivalent of 6 mg/day dexamethasone) for 5-10 days and monitoring of oxygen saturation, body temperature, clinical scoring system, blood sugar, and inflammatory markers for any "red-flag" signs. CONCLUSION: The experts recommended against indiscriminate use of corticosteroids in mild to moderate COVID-19 without the signs of clinical worsening. Oral or IV low-dose corticosteroids (the equivalent of 6 mg/day dexamethasone) for 5-10 days are recommended for patients with features of disease progression based on clinical, biochemical, or radiological criteria after 5 days from symptom onset under close monitoring. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: How to cite this article: Nasa P, Chaudhry D, Govil D, Daga MK, Jain R, Chhallani AA, et al. Expert Consensus Statements on the Use of Corticosteroids in Non-severe COVID-19. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(11):1280-1285.

Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(7): 565-569, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749206


COVID-19 outbreak has caused a pandemonium in modern world. As the virus has spread its tentacles across nations, territories, and continents, the civilized society has been compelled to face an unprecedented situation, never experienced before during peacetime. We are being introduced to an ever-growing new terminologies: "social distancing," "lockdown," "stay safe," "key workers," "self-quarantine," "work-from-home," and so on. Many countries across the globe have closed their borders, airlines have been grounded, movement of public transports has come to a grinding halt, and personal vehicular movements have been restricted or barred. In the past couple of months, we have witnessed mayhem in an unprecedented scale: social, economic, food security, education, business, travel, and freedom of movements are all casualties of this pandemic. Our experience about this virus and its epidemiology is limited, and mostly the treatment for symptomatic patients is supportive. However, it has been observed that COVID-19 not only attacks the respiratory system; rather it may involve other systems also from the beginning of infection or subsequent to respiratory infection. In this article, we attempt to describe the systemic involvement of COVID-19 based on the currently available experiences. This description is up to date as of now, but as more experiences are pouring from different corners of the world, almost every day, newer knowledge and information will crop up by the time this article is published. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Munjal M, Das S, Chatterjee N, Setra AE, Govil D. Systemic Involvement of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19): A Review of Literature. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(7):565-569.