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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 808, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy to break COVID-19 transmission. Although hydroxychloroquine was evaluated for treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis, it is not evaluated for COVID-19 PrEP yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine against placebo in healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection during an epidemic period. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial in three hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. From 350 adult healthcare workers screened, we included 269 participants with no active or past SARS-CoV-2 infection (determined by a negative nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR and a negative serology against SARS-CoV-2). Participants allocated in the intervention arm (PrEP) received 400 mg of hydroxychloroquine daily for the first four consecutive days and subsequently, 400 mg weekly during the study period. Participants in the control group followed the same treatment schedule with placebo tablets. RESULTS: 52.8% (142/269) of participants were in the hydroxychloroquine arm and 47.2% (127/269) in the placebo arm. Given the national epidemic incidence decay, only one participant in each group was diagnosed with COVID-19. The trial was stopped due to futility and our study design was deemed underpowered to evaluate any benefit regarding PrEP efficacy. Both groups showed a similar proportion of participants experiencing at least one adverse event (AE) (p=0.548). No serious AEs were reported. Almost all AEs (96.4%, 106/110) were mild. Only mild gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly higher in the hydroxychloroquine arm compared to the placebo arm (27.4% (39/142) vs 15.7% (20/127), p=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Although the efficacy of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine for preventing COVID-19 could not be evaluated, our study showed that PrEP with hydroxychloroquine at low doses is safe. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04331834 . Registered on April 2, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(7): 1040.e7-1040.e10, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196701

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess differences in patients' profiles in the first two surges of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: We prospectively collected data from all adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed at the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain. All the patients were diagnosed through nasopharyngeal swab PCR. The first surge spanned from 1st March to 13th August 2020, while surge two spanned from 14th August to 8th December 2020. RESULTS: There were 2479 and 852 patients with microbiologically proven SARS-CoV-2 infection in surges one and two, respectively. Patients from surge two were significantly younger (median age 52 (IQR 35) versus 59 (40) years, respectively, p < 0.001), had fewer comorbidities (379/852, 44.5% versus 1237/2479, 49.9%, p 0.007), and there was a shorter interval between onset of symptoms and diagnosis (median 3 (5) versus 4 (5) days, p < 0.001). All-cause in-hospital mortality significantly decreased for both the whole population (24/852, 2.8% versus 218/2479, 8.8%, p < 0.001) and hospitalized patients (20/302, 6.6% versus 206/1570, 13.1%, p 0.012). At adjusted logistic regression analysis, predictors of in-hospital mortality were older age (per year, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.079, 95%CI 1.063-1.094), male sex (aOR 1.476, 95%CI 1.079-2.018), having comorbidities (aOR 1.414, 95%CI 0.934-2.141), ICU admission (aOR 3.812, 95%CI 1.875-7.751), mechanical ventilation (aOR 2.076, 95%CI 0.968-4.454), and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during surge one (with respect to surge two) (aOR 2.176, 95%CI 1.286-3.680). CONCLUSIONS: First-wave SARS-CoV-2-infected patients had a more than two-fold higher in-hospital mortality than second-wave patients. The causes are likely multifactorial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 22(9): 1127-1141, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104688

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: When coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19) blew up, ill-fated auguries on the collision between COVID-19 and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics loomed. AREAS COVERED: Data from observational studies suggest similar incidence attacks of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV-uninfected populations. The mortality rate of COVID-19 is similar in both populations too. The authors discuss the role of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in preventing infection or reducing COVID-19 severity. They also discuss the pharmacological interventions for COVID-19 in PLWH. EXPERT OPINION: Management of COVID-19 in PLWH is no different from the general population. It should be based on careful supportive care, emphasizing lung-protective ventilation, and wise pharmacological interventions. The antiviral drug remdesivir and dexamethasone are the only pharmacological interventions with clinical benefit for COVID-19, whereas anticoagulation may prevent thrombotic complications. The experience with using these drugs in PLWH is limited, which prevents from rendering well-founded conclusions. Until more data on COVID-19 in PLWH become available, the best weapons within our reach are sound supportive care and sensible use of RDV and dexamethasone, bearing in mind the potential for drug-drug interactions of most corticosteroids and antiretroviral drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Clin Immunol ; 223: 108631, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919716

ABSTRACT

Although the starting event in COVID-19 is a viral infection some patients present with an over-exuberant inflammatory response, leading to acute lung injury (ALI) and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since IL-6 plays a critical role in the inflammatory response, we assessed the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab (TCZ) in this single-centre, observational study in all Covid-19 in-patient with a proven SARS-CoV-2 rapidly progressing infection to prevent ALI and ARDS. 104 patients with COVID-19 treated with TCZ had a lower mortality rate (5·8%) compared with the regional mortality rate (11%), hospitalized patient's mortality (10%), and slightly lower than hospitalized patients treated with our standard of care alone (6%). We found that TCZ rapidly decreased acute phase reactants, ferritin and liver release of proteins. D-Dimer decreased slowly. We did not observe specific safety concerns. Early administration of IL6-R antagonists in COVID-19 patients with impending hyperinflammatory response, may be safe and effective treatment to prevent, ICU admission and further complications.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Acute Lung Injury/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Survival Analysis
5.
EBioMedicine ; 58: 102887, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684307

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be envisaged as the dynamic interaction between four vicious feedback loops chained or happening at once. These are the viral loop, the hyperinflammatory loop, the non-canonical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) axis loop, and the hypercoagulation loop. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (CoV)-2 lights the wick by infecting alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and downregulating the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang-1-7)/Mas1R axis. The viral feedback loop includes evading the host's innate response, uncontrolled viral replication, and turning on a hyperactive adaptative immune response. The inflammatory loop is composed of the exuberant inflammatory response feeding back until exploding in an actual cytokine storm. Downregulation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas1R axis leaves the lung without a critical defense mechanism and turns the scale to the inflammatory side of the RAS. The coagulation loop is a hypercoagulable state caused by the interplay between inflammation and coagulation in an endless feedback loop. The result is a hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable state producing acute immune-mediated lung injury and eventually, adult respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Renin-Angiotensin System , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feedback, Physiological , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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