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2.
Montalto, Francesca, Ippolito, Mariachiara, Noto, Alberto, Madotto, Fabiana, Gelardi, Filippa, Savatteri, Paolino, Giarratano, Antonino, Cortegiani, Andrea, Brescia, Fabrizio, Fabiani, Fabio, Zanier, Chiara, Nadalini, Elisa, Gambaretti, Eros, Gabriele, Francesco, Astuto, Marinella, Murabito, Paolo, Sanfilippo, Filippo, Misseri, Giovanni, Moscarelli, Alessandra, Spadaro, Savino, Bussolati, Enrico, Squadrani, Eleonora, Villa, Gianluca, D’Errico, Raffaella, Cocci, Giulia, Lanini, Iacopo, Mirabella, Lucia, Morelli, Alessandra, Tullo, Livio, Caggianelli, Girolamo, Ball, Lorenzo, Iiriti, Margherita, Giordani, Francesca, Giardina, Massimiliano, Mazzeo, Anna Teresa, Grasselli, Giacomo, Cattaneo, Emanuele, Alongi, Salvatore, Marenghi, Cristina, Marmiere, Marilena, Rocchi, Margherita, Turi, Stefano, Landoni, Giovanni, Torrano, Vito, Tinti, Giulia, Giorgi, Antonio, Fumagalli, Roberto, Salvo, Francesco, Blangetti, Ilaria, Cascella, Marco, Forte, Cira Antonietta, Navalesi, Paolo, Montalbano, Marta, Chiarelli, Valentina, Bonanno, Giuseppe, Ferrara, Francesco Paolo, Pernice, Innocenza, Catalisano, Giulia, Marino, Claudia, Presti, Gabriele, Fricano, Dario Calogero, Fucà, Rosa, Palmeri di Villalba, Cesira, Strano, Maria Teresa, Caruso, Sabrina, Scafidi, Antonino, Mazzarese, Vincenzo, Augugliaro, Ettore, Terranova, Valeria, Forfori, Francesco, Corradi, Francesco, Taddei, Erika, Isirdi, Alessandro, Pratesi, Giorgia, Puccini, Francesca, Paternoster, Gianluca, Barile, Alessio, Tescione, Marco, Santacaterina, Irene, Siclari, Eliana Maria, Tripodi, Vincenzo Francesco, Vadalà, Mariacristina, Agrò, Felice Eugenio, Pascarella, Giuseppe, Piliego, Chiara, Aceto, Paola, De Pascale, Gennaro, Dottarelli, Alessandra, Romanò, Bruno, Russo, Andrea, Covotta, Marco, Giorgerini, Valeria, Sardellitti, Federica, Vitelli, Giulia Maria, Coluzzi, Flaminia, Bove, Tiziana, Vetrugno, Luigi.
Journal of Anesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care ; 1(1):17-17, 2021.
Article in English | BioMed Central | ID: covidwho-1542137
3.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 72(2): 291-301, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation in patients with coronavirus disease-19 is a high-risk procedure that should be performed with personal protective equipment (PPE). The influence of PPE on operator's performance during tracheal intubation remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of simulation studies to evaluate the influence of wearing PPE as compared to standard uniform regarding time-to-intubation (TTI) and success rate. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to device used and operator's experience. RESULTS: The TTI was prolonged when wearing PPE (eight studies): Standard Mean Difference (SMD) -0.54, 95% Confidence Interval [-0.75, -0.34], p <  0.0001. Subgroup analyses according to device used showed similar findings (direct laryngoscopy, SMD -0.63 [-0.88, -0.38], p < 0.0001; videolaryngoscopy, SMD -0.39 [-0.75, -0.02], p =  0.04). Considering the operator's experience, non-anesthesiologists had prolonged TTI (SMD -0.75 [-0.98, -0.52], p < 0.0001) while the analysis on anesthesiologists did not show significant differences (SMD -0.25 [-0.51, 0.01], p = 0.06). The success rate of tracheal intubation was not influenced by PPE: Risk Ratio (RR) 1.02 [1.00, 1.04]; p = 0.12). Subgroup analyses according to device demonstrated similar results (direct laryngoscopy, RR 1.03 [0.99, 1.07], p = 0.15, videolaryngoscopy, RR 1.01 [0.98, 1.04], p =  0.52). Wearing PPE had a trend towards negative influence on success rate in non-anesthesiologists (RR 1.05 [1.00, 1.10], p = 0.05), but not in anesthesiologists (RR 1.00 [0.98, 1.03], p = 0.84). Trial-sequential analyses for TTI and success rate indicated robustness of both results. CONCLUSIONS: Under simulated conditions, wearing PPE delays the TTI as compared to dressing standard uniform, with no influence on the success rate. However, certainty of evidence is very low. Performing tracheal intubation with direct laryngoscopy seems influenced to a greater extent as compared to videolaryngoscopy. Similarly, wearing PPE affects more the non-anesthesiologists subgroup as compared to anesthesiologists.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy , Personal Protective Equipment
5.
Inflamm Res ; 69(8): 757-763, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401592

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is sorely testing health care systems and economies around the world and is rightly considered as the major health emergency in a century. Despite the course of the disease appearing to be mild in many cases, a significant proportion of symptomatic patients develop pneumonia requiring hospitalisation or progress to manifest respiratory complications leading to intensive care treatment. Potential interventions for SARS-CoV2-associated pneumonia are being tested, some of which holding promise, but as of today none of these has yet demonstrated outstanding efficacy in treating COVID-19. In this article, we discuss fresh perspectives and insights into the potential role of immune dysregulation in COVID-19 as well as similarities with systemic inflammatory response in sepsis and the rationale for exploring novel treatment options affecting host immune response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immune System/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/therapy
6.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of COVID-19 infection, which started in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019, is an ongoing challenge and a significant threat to public health requiring surveillance, prompt diagnosis, and research efforts to understand a new, emergent, and unknown pathogen and to develop effective therapies. Despite the increasing number of published studies on COVID-19, in all the examined studies the lack of a well-defined pathophysiology of death among patients who died following COVID-19 infection is evident. Autopsy should be considered mandatory to define the exact cause of death, thus providing useful clinical and epidemiologic information as well as pathophysiological insights to further provide therapeutic tools. METHODS: A literature review was performed on PubMed database, using the key terms: "COVID-19", "nCov 19", and "Sars Cov 2". 9709 articles were retrieved; by excluding all duplicated articles, additional criteria were then applied: articles or abstracts in English and articles containing one of the following words: "death", "died", "comorbidity", "cause of death", "biopsy", "autopsy", or "pathological". RESULTS: A total of 50 articles met the inclusion criteria. However, only 7 of these studies reported autopsy-based data. DISCUSSION: The analysis of the main data from the selected studies concerns the complete analysis of 12,954 patients, of whom 2269 died (with a mortality rate of 17.52%). Laboratory confirmation of COVID-19 infection was obtained in all cases and comorbidities were fully reported in 46 studies. The most common comorbidities were: cardiovascular diseases (hypertension and coronary artery disease), metabolic disorders (diabetes, overweight, or obesity), respiratory disorders (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cancer. The most common reported complications were: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney injury, cardiac injury, liver insufficiency, and septic shock. Only 7 papers reported histological investigations. Nevertheless, only two complete autopsies are described and the cause of death was listed as COVID-19 in only one of them. The lack of postmortem investigation did not allow a definition of the exact cause of death to determine the pathways of this infection. Based on the few histopathological findings reported in the analyzed studies, it seems to be a clear alteration of the coagulation system: frequently prothrombotic activity with consequent thromboembolism was described in COVID-19 patients. As a scientific community, we are called on to face this global threat, and to defeat it with all the available tools necessary. Despite the improvement and reinforcement of any method of study in every field of medicine and science, encouraging the autopsy practice as a tool of investigation could also therefore, help physicians to define an effective treatment to reduce mortality.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On the 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was informed of a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown origin detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. The infection spread first in China and then in the rest of the world, and on the 11th of March, the WHO declared that COVID-19 was a pandemic. Taking into consideration the mortality rate of COVID-19, about 5-7%, and the percentage of positive patients admitted to intensive care units being 9-11%, it should be mandatory to consider and take all necessary measures to contain the COVID-19 infection. Moreover, given the recent evidence in different hospitals suggesting IL-6 and TNF-α inhibitor drugs as a possible therapy for COVID-19, we aimed to highlight that a dietary intervention could be useful to prevent the infection and/or to ameliorate the outcomes during therapy. Considering that the COVID-19 infection can generate a mild or highly acute respiratory syndrome with a consequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α, a dietary regimen modification in order to improve the levels of adiponectin could be very useful both to prevent the infection and to take care of patients, improving their outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adiponectin/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Lung Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
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