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IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1853434


Wireless body area networks (WBANs) are becoming increasingly popular as they allow individuals to continuously monitor their vitals and physiological parameters remotely from the hospital. With the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the availability of portable pulse-oximeters and wearable heart rate detectors has boomed in the market. At the same time, in 2020 we assisted to an unprecedented increase of healthcare breaches, revealing the extreme vulnerability of the current generation of WBANs. Therefore, the development of new security protocols to ensure data protection, authentication, integrity and privacy within WBANs are highly needed. Here, we targeted a WBAN collecting ECG signals from different sensor nodes on the individual's body, we extracted the inter-pulse interval (i.e., R-R interval) sequence from each of them, and we developed a new information theoretic key agreement protocol that exploits the inherent randomness of ECG to ensure authentication between sensor pairs within the WBAN. After proper pre-processing, we provide an analytical solution that ensures robust authentication;we provide a unique information reconciliation matrix, which gives good performance for all ECG sensor pairs;and we can show that a relationship between information reconciliation and privacy amplification matrices can be found. Finally, we show the trade-off between the level of security, in terms of key generation rate, and the complexity of the error correction scheme implemented in the system.

Galbiati, C.; Abba, A.; Agnes, P.; Amaudruz, P.; Arba, M.; Ardellier-Desages, F.; Badia, C.; Batignani, G.; Bellani, G.; Bianchi, G.; Bishop, D.; Bocci, V.; Bonivento, W.; Bottino, B.; Bouchard, M.; Brice, S.; Buccino, G.; Bussino, S.; Caminata, A.; Capra, A.; Caravati, M.; Carlini, M.; Carrozzi, L.; Cela, J. M.; Celano, B.; Charette, C.; Coelli, S.; Constable, M.; Cocco, V.; Croci, G.; Cudmore, S.; Molin, Dal, D'Auria, S.; D'Avenio, G.; DeRuiter, J.; Cecco, De, Lauretis, De, Tutto, Del, Devoto, A.; Dinon, T.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Fabbri, A.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Ford, R.; Foti, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Abia, Garcia, Giarratana, L. S.; Givoletti, J.; Givoletti, Mi, Gorini, G.; Gramellini, E.; Grosso, G.; Guescini, F.; Guetre, E.; Hadden, T.; Hall, J.; Heavey, A.; Hersak, G.; Hessey, N.; Ianni, An, Ienzi, C.; Ippolito, V.; Kendziora, C. L.; King, M.; Kittmer, A.; Kochanek, I.; Kruecken, R.; Commara, La, Leblond, G.; Li, X.; Lim, C.; Lindner, T.; Lombardi, T.; Long, T.; Lu, P.; Lukhanin, G.; Magni, G.; Maharaj, R.; Malosio, M.; Mapelli, C.; Maqueo, P.; Margetak, P.; Mari, S. M.; Martin, L.; Massacret, N.; McDonald, A.; Minuzzo, D.; Mohayai, T. A.; Tosatti, Molinari, Moretti, C.; Muraro, A.; Nati, F.; Noble, A. J.; Norrick, A.; Olchanski, K.; Palumbo, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paoli, N.; Pearson, C.; Pellegrino, C.; Pesudo, V.; Pocar, A.; Pontesilli, M.; Pordes, R.; Pordes, S.; Prini, A.; Putignano, O.; Raaf, J. L.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Reed, D.; Renshaw, A.; Rescigno, M.; Retiere, F.; Rignanese, L. P.; Rode, J.; Romualdez, L. J.; Santorelli, R.; Sablone, D.; Scapparone, E.; Schaubel, T.; Shaw, B.; Slutsky, A. S.; Smith, B.; Smith, N. J. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Spinella, F.; Stenzler, A.; Steri, A.; Stiaccini, L.; Stoughton, C.; Stringari, P.; Tardocchi, M.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Tintori, C.; Tonazzo, A.; Tseng, J.; Viscione, E.; Vivaldi, F.; Wada, M.; Wang, H.; Westerdale, S.; Yue, S.; Zardoni, A..
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310788


Presented here is the design of the Mechanical Ventilator Milano (MVM), a novel mechanical ventilator designed for rapid mass production in response to the COVID-19 pandemic to address the urgent shortage of intensive therapy ventilators in many countries, and the growing difficulty in procuring these devices through normal supply chains across borders. This ventilator is an electro-mechanical equivalent of the old and reliable Manley Ventilator, and is able to operate in both pressure-controlled and pressure-supported ventilation modes. MVM is optimized for the COVID-19 emergency, thanks to the collaboration with medical doctors in the front line. MVM is designed for large-scale production in a short amount of time and at a limited cost, as it relays on off-the-shelf components, readily available worldwide. Operation of the MVM requires only a source of compressed oxygen (or compressed medical air) and electrical power. Initial tests of a prototype device with a breathing simulator are also presented. Further tests and developments are underway. At this stage the MVM is not yet a certified medical device but certification is in progress.

Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 76(SUPPL 110):649-650, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1570431


Background: It is well accepted that specific micronutrients can enhance the immune response to improve resistance to viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs), such as COVID-19. The primary objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for primary prevention of any respiratory viral infection through supplementation with nutrients that already have a recognized role in immune function. Method: We conducted a systematic search in EMBASE, AMED, CAB International, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science papers, published from the inception of these respective databases until 10th of April 2020. Our primary outcome was the incidence of RTIs with (potential) viral origins in subjects without increased risk of RTIs. Results: The search produced 15,163 records of which 93 papers (based on 115 studies) met the criteria to be included in the review. These studies included 199,055 study participants (191,636 children and 7,419 adults) in 37 countries around the world on supplementation with multiple micronutrients, vitamin A, folic acid, vitamin B12, C, D, E, beta-carotene, zinc, iron and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The overall ROB across all studies was moderate. Sixty-three studies were included in the meta-analyses, which was performed for children and adults separately. Supplementation with zinc in children showed a non-significant decreased risk of incidence of RTI (RR 0.91, 95%CI 0.82-1.01, I2 = 83.70% p = 0.000.) By stratifying the meta-analysis by regions of the world, only studies performed in Asia showed a significant (RR 0.86, 95%CI 0.7-0.96, I2 = 79.1%, p = 0.000) protective effect of zinc supplementation on RTI. Vitamin D supplementation in adults showed a significant decreased incidence of RTI (RR 0.89, 95%CI 0.79-0.99, I2 = 20.7%), p = 0.272). However, when subdivided by world regions, studies performed in North America showed a significant effect (RR 0.82 95%CI 0.68-0.97), but not those from Europe (RR 1.02, 95%CI 0.60-1.44) or Oceania (RR 0.97, (95%CI 0.84-1.10). Conclusion: Based on the systematic review and meta-analyses, supplementation of vitamins, multiple nutrients or fatty acids in the general population has no, or at least very limited, effect in the prevention of respiratory infections, such as COVID-19. However, there was some evidence that zinc supplementation among children in Asia, and vitamin D among adults in the USA and Canada might potentially confer protection.