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1.
Clin Transl Imaging ; 9(4): 299-339, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312327

ABSTRACT

AIM: The diagnosis, severity and extent of a sterile inflammation or a septic infection could be challenging since there is not one single test able to achieve an accurate diagnosis. The clinical use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in the assessment of inflammation and infection is increasing worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to achieve an Italian consensus document on [18F]FDG PET/CT or PET/MRI in inflammatory and infectious diseases, such as osteomyelitis (OM), prosthetic joint infections (PJI), infective endocarditis (IE), prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), cardiac implantable electronic device infections (CIEDI), systemic and cardiac sarcoidosis (SS/CS), diabetic foot (DF), fungal infections (FI), tuberculosis (TBC), fever and inflammation of unknown origin (FUO/IUO), pediatric infections (PI), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), spine infections (SI), vascular graft infections (VGI), large vessel vasculitis (LVV), retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF) and COVID-19 infections. METHODS: In September 2020, the inflammatory and infectious diseases focus group (IIFG) of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) proposed to realize a procedural paper about the clinical applications of [18F]FDG PET/CT or PET/MRI in inflammatory and infectious diseases. The project was carried out thanks to the collaboration of 13 Italian nuclear medicine centers, with a consolidate experience in this field. With the endorsement of AIMN, IIFG contacted each center, and the pediatric diseases focus group (PDFC). IIFG provided for each team involved, a draft with essential information regarding the execution of [18F]FDG PET/CT or PET/MRI scan (i.e., indications, patient preparation, standard or specific acquisition modalities, interpretation criteria, reporting methods, pitfalls and artifacts), by limiting the literature research to the last 20 years. Moreover, some clinical cases were required from each center, to underline the teaching points. Time for the collection of each report was from October to December 2020. RESULTS: Overall, we summarized 291 scientific papers and guidelines published between 1998 and 2021. Papers were divided in several sub-topics and summarized in the following paragraphs: clinical indications, image interpretation criteria, future perspectivess and new trends (for each single disease), while patient preparation, image acquisition, possible pitfalls and reporting modalities were described afterwards. Moreover, a specific section was dedicated to pediatric and PET/MRI indications. A collection of images was described for each indication. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, [18F]FDG PET/CT in oncology is globally accepted and standardized in main diagnostic algorithms for neoplasms. In recent years, the ever-closer collaboration among different European associations has tried to overcome the absence of a standardization also in the field of inflammation and infections. The collaboration of several nuclear medicine centers with a long experience in this field, as well as among different AIMN focus groups represents a further attempt in this direction. We hope that this document will be the basis for a "common nuclear physicians' language" throughout all the country. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40336-021-00445-w.

2.
Radiol Med ; 127(2): 162-173, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626023

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the presence of signs of microvascular involvement at the CT scan, such as the vascular tree in bud (TIB) and the vascular enlargement pattern (VEP). Recent evidence suggests that TIB could be associated with an increased duration of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and intensive care unit (ICU) stay. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether microvascular involvement signs could have a prognostic significance concerning liberation from IMV. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the COVID-19 patients requiring IMV admitted to 16 Italian ICUs and having a lung CT scan recorded within 3 days from intubation were enrolled in this secondary analysis. Radiologic, clinical and biochemical data were collected. RESULTS: A total of 139 patients affected by COVID-19 related ARDS were enrolled. After grouping based on TIB or VEP detection, we found no differences in terms of duration of IMV and mortality. Extension of VEP and TIB was significantly correlated with ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and crazy paving pattern extension. A parenchymal extent over 50% of GGO and crazy paving pattern was more frequently observed among non-survivors, while a VEP and TIB extent involving 3 or more lobes was significantly more frequent in non-responders to prone positioning. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of early CT scan signs of microvascular involvement in COVID-19 patients does not appear to be associated with differences in duration of IMV and mortality. However, patients with a high extension of VEP and TIB may have a reduced oxygenation response to prone positioning. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04411459.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Microvessels/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(4): e200289, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155996

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate CT pulmonary angiography findings of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its association with clinical and radiologic conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study includes 109 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who underwent CT pulmonary angiography for suspected PTE from March 20 to May 3, 2020. Data were collected from our PACS. CT pulmonary angiography findings of PTE were evaluated. On the basis of the presence or absence of PTE, patients were divided into two groups, and their clinical and radiologic conditions were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test. RESULTS: The study population comprised 82 men and 19 women, with a mean age of 64.1 years ± 15.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 60.4, 67.6) years. CT pulmonary angiography was performed 19.8 days ± 6.1 (95% CI: 18.1, 20.2) after symptom onset and 10.5 days ± 3.8 (95% CI: 10.2, 12.9) after admission. Of 101 patients, 41 had PTE (40.6%). PTE was mostly bilateral or only right (37/41 [90.2%]), mainly involved segmental (37/41 [90.2%]) or subsegmental (25/41 [61.0%]) arteries and affected mainly the branches of the lower lobe (30/41 [73.2%]). Parenchymal segments supplied by segmental arteries with PTE showed a prevalent consolidation pattern (25/37 [67.6%]). Deep vein thrombosis was present only in five of 41 (12.2%) patients. Comparing groups with and without PTE, no significant difference was observed in age, sex, symptom onset, comorbidities, tumor history, use of respiratory supports, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and deep vein thrombosis. Conversely, differences were evaluated in CT lesion score (15.7 ± 1.4 [95% CI: 15.3, 16.1] vs 14.1 ± 1.1 [95% CI: 13.8, 14.4]; P = .035), d-dimer level (P < .001), lactate dehydrogenase level (P < .001), and C-reactive protein level (P = .042). CONCLUSION: PTE in COVID-19 involves mainly the segmental and subsegmental arteries of segments affected by consolidations in patients with more severe lung disease. The authors hypothesize that the development of PTE in COVID-19 might be a pulmonary artery thrombosis because of severe lung inflammation and hypercoagulability rather than thromboembolism.© RSNA, 2020.

4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 609204, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106018

ABSTRACT

A subset of patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) developed a condition of hyper-inflammation, which can cause multi-organ damage and the more severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can promote tissue regeneration and modulate immune responses and, thus, have the rational requirements to be used to counteract SARS-CoV-2-induced pneumonia and hyper-inflammation. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into possible mechanisms of action of MSCs obtained from human dental pulp [dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs)] in COVID-19 patients. We investigated the concentrations of 18 cytokines in supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from COVID-19 patients cultured in vitro alone and in contact with DPSCs. The modulation of cytokines in PBMCs was confirmed by real-time PCR. IL-6 was the sole cytokine detected in supernatants of DPSCs. In resting conditions, co-culture increased IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, TNFα, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) levels. When PBMCs were activated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody-coated beads, co-culture increased IL-6 and GM-CSF, whereas it decreased IFNγ, TNFα, IL-2, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), IL-17A, IL-18, IL-21, IL-23, and IL-27 levels. Concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-22 were not affected. The comparison of cytokine concentrations in supernatants of PBMCs from COVID-19 patients vs. healthy subjects revealed lower concentrations of IL-10 and higher concentrations of IL-18 in supernatants of CD3/CD28-activated PBMCs from COVID-19 patients. Results are explorative but indicate that DPSCs can modulate the production of cytokines deregulated in COVID-19 patients, supporting their potential use in COVID-19.

5.
Clin Epidemiol ; 12: 1421-1431, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013254

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the decision of which ventilation strategy to adopt in COVID-19 patients is crucial, yet the most appropriate means of carrying out this undertaking is not supported by strong evidence. We therefore described the organization of a province-level healthcare system during the occurrence of the COVID-19 epidemic and the 60-day outcomes of the hospitalized COVID-19 patients according to the respiratory strategy adopted given the limited available resources. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All COVID-19 patients (26/02/2020-18/04/2020) in the Rimini Province of Italy were included in this population-based cohort study. The hospitalized patients were classified according to the maximum level of respiratory support: oxygen supplementation (Oxygen group), non-invasive ventilation (NIV-only group), invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV-only group), and IMV after an NIV trial (IMV-after-NIV group). Sixty-day mortality risk was estimated with a Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted by age, sex, and administration of steroids, canakinumab, and tocilizumab. RESULTS: We identified a total of 1,424 symptomatic patients: 520 (36.5%) were hospitalized, while 904 (63.5%) were treated at home with no 60-day deaths. Based on the respiratory support, 408 (78.5%) were assigned to the Oxygen group, 46 (8.8%) to the NIV-only group, 25 (4.8%) to the IMV-after-NIV group, and 41 (7.9%) to the IMV-only group. There was no significant difference in the PaO2/FiO2 at IMV inception in the IMV-after-NIV and IMV-only groups (p=0.9). Overall 60-day mortality was 24.2% (Oxygen: 23.0%; NIV-only: 19.6%; IMV-after-NIV: 32.0%; IMV-only: 36.6%; p=0.165). Compared with the Oxygen group, the adjusted 60-day mortality risk significantly increased in the IMV-after-NIV (HR 2.776; p=0.024) and IMV-only groups (HR 2.966; p=0.001). CONCLUSION: This study provided a population-based estimate of the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak in a severely affected Italian province. A similar 60-day mortality risk was found for patients undergoing immediate IMV and those intubated after an NIV trial with favorable outcomes after prolonged IMV.

6.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38(6): 1215-1222, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-958715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of clinical improvement and intubation/death in tocilizumab-treated severe COVID19, focusing on IL6 and CRP longitudinal monitoring. METHODS: 173 consecutive patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia receiving tocilizumab in Reggio Emilia province Hospitals between 11 March and 3 June 2020 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Clinical improvement was defined as status improvement on a six-category ordinal scale or discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. A composite outcome of intubation/death was also evaluated. CRP and IL-6 levels were determined before TCZ administration (T0) and after 3 (T3), and 7 (T7) days. RESULTS: At multivariate analysis T0 and T3 CRP levels were negatively associated with clinical improvement (OR 0.13, CI 0.03-0.55 and OR 0.11, CI 0.0-0.46) (p=0.006 and p=0.003) and positively associated with intubation/death (OR 17.66, CI 2.47-126.14 and OR 5.34, CI: 1.49-19.12) (p=0.01 and p=0.004). No significant associations with IL-6 values were observed. General linear model analyses for repeated measures showed significantly different trends for CRP from day 3 to day 7 between patients who improved and those who did not, and between patients who were intubated or died and those who were not (p<0.0001 for both). ROC analysis identified a baseline CRP level of 15.8 mg/dl as the best cut-off to predict intubation/death (AUC = 0.711, sensitivity = 0.67, specificity = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: CRP serial measurements in the first week of TCZ therapy are useful in identifying patients developing poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Acute-Phase Proteins , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(1): 48-52, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696616

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with autoimmune conditions treated with antimalarials in a population-based study. METHODS: All residents treated with chloroquine (CQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) from July through December 2019 and living in 3 provinces of Regione Emilia-Romagna were identified by drug prescription registries and matched with the registry containing all residents living in the same areas who have had swabs and tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 4,408 patients were identified. The prevalence of patients receiving antimalarials was 0.85 per 1,000 men and 3.3 per 1,000 women. The cumulative incidence of testing during the study period was 2.7% in the general population and 3.8% among those receiving CQ or HCQ, while the cumulative incidence of testing positive was 0.55% in the general population and 0.70% among those receiving CQ/HCQ. Multivariate models showed that those receiving CQ/HCQ had a slightly higher probability of being tested compared to the general population (OR 1.09 [95% CI 0.94-1.28]), the same probability of being diagnosed as having COVID-19 (OR 0.94 [95% CI 0.66-1.34]), and a slightly lower probability of being positive once tested (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.56-1.23]). None of the differences were significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support the use of antimalarials as a prophylactic treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(7): 986-988, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-435835
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