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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20638, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475483

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented threat to humanity that has provoked global health concerns. Since the etiopathogenesis of this illness is not fully characterized, the prognostic factors enabling treatment decisions have not been well documented. Accurately predicting the progression of the disease would aid in appropriate patient categorization and thus help determine the best treatment option. Here, we have introduced a proteomic approach utilizing data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry (DIA-MS) to identify the serum proteins that are closely associated with COVID-19 prognosis. Twenty-seven proteins were differentially expressed between severely ill COVID-19 patients with an adverse or favorable prognosis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that 15 of the 27 proteins might be regulated by cytokine signaling relevant to interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and their differential expression was implicated in the systemic inflammatory response and in cardiovascular disorders. We further evaluated practical predictors of the clinical prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients. Subsequent ELISA assays revealed that CHI3L1 and IGFALS may serve as highly sensitive prognostic markers. Our findings can help formulate a diagnostic approach for accurately identifying COVID-19 patients with severe disease and for providing appropriate treatment based on their predicted prognosis.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , Gene Expression Profiling , Proteomics/methods , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1beta/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , Virus Diseases
2.
Respir Investig ; 59(5): 596-601, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) level is a predictive factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The development of ARDS has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to determine whether serum KL-6 levels are associated with mortality and severity in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Among 361 Japanese patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized at Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center between February 2020 and December 2020, 356 patients with data on serum KL-6 levels were enrolled and their medical records were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: A negative correlation was observed between KL-6 levels and the ratio of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen on admission. The KL-6 levels on admission and the maximal KL-6 levels were higher in patients with severe disease (n = 60) than in those with nonsevere disease (n = 296). Furthermore, the maximal KL-6 levels were higher in nonsurvivors (n = 6) than in survivors (n = 350). In nonsurvivors, the KL-6 levels increased as the disease progressed. The optimal cutoff value of the maximal KL-6 level for discriminating between survivors and nonsurvivors was 684 U/mL, with a sensitivity of 83.3%, a specificity of 90.5%, and an area under the curve of 0.89. CONCLUSIONS: The serum KL-6 level was associated with disease severity. Patients with KL-6 levels ≥684 U/mL had a significantly poorer outcome than those with KL-6 levels <684 U/mL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Humans , Mucin-1 , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
3.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(6): 895-901, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117020

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although several reports on the risk factors for severe disease of COVID-19 already exist, reports on effective early indicators are still limited, especially from Japan. This study was conducted to clarify the patient's characteristics whose disease progressed to severe status. METHODS: The medical records of all consecutive 300 Japanese patients hospitalized at our institution between February and November 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical characteristics were evaluated to compare between mild (no oxygen needed), moderate (oxygen needs of 1-4 L/min), and severe diseases (oxygen needs of 5 L/min or more). RESULTS: The median age was 68 years old, with 123 (41.0%) males and 177 (59.0%) females. Of these, 199 patients (66.3%), 55 patients (18.3%), 46 patients (15.3%) patients were in the mild disease, moderate disease, severe disease groups, respectively. Patients with severe disease were more likely to be older, have more comorbidities, and tended to have higher body mass index. In laboratory data, lymphocyte count, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), LDH, and AST on admission were significantly associated with the severity. In multivariate analysis, age and CRP were the independent risk factors for severe disease (OR = 1.050, 1.130, respectively). The optimal cut-off value for age was 74 years old and that for CRP was 3.15 mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: Age and CRP were independently associated with disease severity of COVID-19 in multivariate analysis. Additionally, the numbers of underlying disease, lymphocyte count, and inflammatory markers such as LDH and D-dimer may also be related to disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 628281, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058428

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Serological tests for COVID-19 have been instrumental in studying the epidemiology of the disease. However, the performance of the currently available tests is plagued by the problem of variability. We have developed a high-throughput serological test capable of simultaneously detecting total immunoglobulins (Ig) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) against nucleocapsid protein (NP) and spike protein (SP) and report its performance in detecting COVID-19 in clinical samples. Methods: We designed and prepared reagents for measuring NP-IgG, NP-Total Ig, SP-IgG, and SP-Total Ig (using N-terminally truncated NP (ΔN-NP) or receptor-binding domain (RBD) antigen) dedicated automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay analyzer AIA-CL1200. After determining the basal thresholds based on 17 sera obtained from confirmed COVID-19 patients and 600 negative sera, the clinical validity of the assay was evaluated using independent 202 positive samples and 1,000 negative samples from healthy donors. Results: All of the four test parameters showed 100% specificity individually (1,000/1,000; 95%CI, 99.63-100). The sensitivity of the assay increased proportionally to the elapsed time from symptoms onset, and all the tests achieved 100% sensitivity (153/153; 95%CI, 97.63-100) after 13 days from symptoms onset. NP-Total Ig was the earliest to attain maximal sensitivity among the other antibodies tested. Conclusion: Our newly developed serological testing exhibited 100% sensitivity and specificity after 13 days from symptoms onset. Hence, it could be used as a reliable method for accurate detection of COVID-19 patients and to evaluate seroprevalence and possibly for surrogate assessment of herd immunity.

5.
Intern Med ; 59(22): 2921-2925, 2020 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836062

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been recognized as a worldwide pandemic. However, the clinical course of COVID-19 remains poorly characterized. Although some cases of pneumothorax have been reported, they all had pulmonary complications or were managed with mechanical ventilation. We herein report a case of pneumothorax that developed even though the patient had no pulmonary underlying diseases and had never been managed with mechanical ventilation. In the present case, a lung bulla was found on chest computed tomography during treatment for COVID-19. We concluded that COVID-19 affected the formation of the lung bulla and induced the complication of pneumothorax.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumothorax/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Respir Investig ; 58(6): 430-434, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741469

ABSTRACT

Although the use of corticosteroids is not recommended in the World Health Organization statement for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), steroid therapy may be indicated for critical cases in specific situations. Here, we report the successful treatment of 11 cases of severe COVID-19 pneumonia with favipiravir and methylprednisolone. All cases were severe and patients required oxygen administration or had a blood oxygen saturation ≤93% on room air. All were treated with favipiravir and methylprednisolone, and 10 of 11 patients responded well and required no further oxygen supplementation or ventilator management. This study shows the importance of the early-stage use of a combination of favipiravir and methylprednisolone in severe cases to achieve a favorable clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methylprednisolone , Amides , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pyrazines , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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