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1.
Immunity ; 54(4): 753-768.e5, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385739

ABSTRACT

Viral infections induce a conserved host response distinct from bacterial infections. We hypothesized that the conserved response is associated with disease severity and is distinct between patients with different outcomes. To test this, we integrated 4,780 blood transcriptome profiles from patients aged 0 to 90 years infected with one of 16 viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, Ebola, chikungunya, and influenza, across 34 cohorts from 18 countries, and single-cell RNA sequencing profiles of 702,970 immune cells from 289 samples across three cohorts. Severe viral infection was associated with increased hematopoiesis, myelopoiesis, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. We identified protective and detrimental gene modules that defined distinct trajectories associated with mild versus severe outcomes. The interferon response was decoupled from the protective host response in patients with severe outcomes. These findings were consistent, irrespective of age and virus, and provide insights to accelerate the development of diagnostics and host-directed therapies to improve global pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
Immunity/genetics , Virus Diseases/immunology , Antigen Presentation/genetics , Cohort Studies , Hematopoiesis/genetics , Humans , Interferons/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/pathology , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Systems Biology , Transcriptome , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/classification , Virus Diseases/genetics , Viruses/classification , Viruses/pathogenicity
2.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(3): 325-330, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303986

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite significant progress in our understanding and clinical management of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), significant challenges remain. Here, we review recently published studies on the clinical diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment of MIS-C, highlighting key gaps in research progress that are a microcosm for challenges in translational pediatric research. We then discuss potential solutions in the realm of translational bioinformatics. RECENT FINDINGS: Current case definitions are inconsistent and do not capture the underlying pathophysiology of MIS-C, which remains poorly understood. Although overall mortality is low, some patients rapidly decompensate, and a test to identify those at risk for severe outcomes remains an unmet need. Treatment consists of various combinations of immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, and biologics, based on extrapolated data and expert opinion, while the benefits remain unclear as we await the completion of clinical trials. SUMMARY: The small size and heterogeneity of the pediatric population contribute to unmet needs because of financial and logistical constraints of the current research infrastructure focused on eliminating most sources of heterogeneity, leading to ungeneralizable results. Data sharing and meta-analysis of gene expression shows promise to accelerate progress in the field of MIS-C as well as other childhood diseases beyond the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Computational Biology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
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