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1.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1350-1367, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153223

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, predominantly due to lung and cardiovascular injury. The virus responsible for COVID-19-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-gains entry into host cells via ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). ACE2 is a primary enzyme within the key counter-regulatory pathway of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which acts to oppose the actions of Ang (angiotensin) II by generating Ang-(1-7) to reduce inflammation and fibrosis and mitigate end organ damage. As COVID-19 spans multiple organ systems linked to the cardiovascular system, it is imperative to understand clearly how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may affect the multifaceted RAS. In addition, recognition of the role of ACE2 and the RAS in COVID-19 has renewed interest in its role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in general. We provide researchers with a framework of best practices in basic and clinical research to interrogate the RAS using appropriate methodology, especially those who are relatively new to the field. This is crucial, as there are many limitations inherent in investigating the RAS in experimental models and in humans. We discuss sound methodological approaches to quantifying enzyme content and activity (ACE, ACE2), peptides (Ang II, Ang-[1-7]), and receptors (types 1 and 2 Ang II receptors, Mas receptor). Our goal is to ensure appropriate research methodology for investigations of the RAS in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and COVID-19 to ensure optimal rigor and reproducibility and appropriate interpretation of results from these investigations.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prognosis , Research Design , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
2.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007787

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused major stress for families and children, particularly in the context of prolonged school closures. Few longitudinal studies are available on young children's mental health, including data both before and during the pandemic. This study examined experiences that might increase risk for mental health problems among caregivers and young children during the COVID-19 pandemic and inequalities driven by pre-pandemic disadvantage. METHOD: This prospective, population-based birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil, analyzed 2,083 children and caregivers with data from before the pandemic in 2019, when children were 4 years old, and again in 2020, when schools were closed for a long period during the pandemic. Child conduct problems, emotional problems, and hyperactivity-inattention problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Family financial hardship, relationship difficulties, caregiver mental health, parenting practices, and child fears and isolation were considered as potential risk factors. RESULTS: Across the whole population, the only significant increase in mental health problems from before to during the pandemic was found for maternal depression. However, poorer families were at far greater risk of experiencing serious financial problems, food shortages, increased conflict in adult relationships, parenting problems, and child worries about food availability during the pandemic. In turn, these difficulties were associated with increases in multiple mental health problems for both caregivers and children. Increased child mental health problems were most strongly associated with concurrent maternal anxiety (ß > 0.20, p < .001, for each of child conduct, emotional, and hyperactivity problems), maternal depression (ß = 0.26, p < .001, for child emotional problems), partner criticism (ß = 0.21, p < .001, for child conduct problems), and harsh parenting (ß > 0.20, p < .001, for both child conduct and hyperactivity problems). Child worry about COVID-19 was associated with increased emotional problems (ß = 0.14, p < .001), but children's isolation was not associated with their mental health. CONCLUSION: Overall, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health is a mixed picture, but for families in poverty, marked material and interpersonal difficulties were associated with increases in mental health problems among children and caregivers.

4.
Lancet ; 399(10336): 1741-1752, 2022 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805366

ABSTRACT

The survival and nutrition of children and, to a lesser extent, adolescents have improved substantially in the past two decades. Improvements have been linked to the delivery of effective biomedical, behavioural, and environmental interventions; however, large disparities exist between and within countries. Using data from 95 national surveys in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), we analyse how strongly the health, nutrition, and cognitive development of children and adolescents are related to early-life poverty. Additionally, using data from six large, long-running birth cohorts in LMICs, we show how early-life poverty can have a lasting effect on health and human capital throughout the life course. We emphasise the importance of implementing multisectoral anti-poverty policies and programmes to complement specific health and nutrition interventions delivered at an individual level, particularly at a time when COVID-19 continues to disrupt economic, health, and educational gains achieved in the recent past.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Developing Countries , Adolescent , Birth Cohort , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Poverty , Research
5.
Clin Epidemiol ; 13: 121-130, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with celiac disease (CeD) are at increased risk of certain viral infections and of pneumococcal pneumonia, raising concerns that they may be susceptible to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We aimed to quantify the association between CeD and severe outcomes related to Covid-19. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study, identifying individuals with CeD in Sweden, as defined by small intestinal villus atrophy diagnosed at all (n=28) Swedish pathology departments during the years spanning 1969-2017, and alive on February 1, 2020. We compared these patients to controls matched by sex, age, county, and calendar period. We performed Cox proportional hazards with follow-up through July 31, 2020, assessing risk of 1) hospital admission with a primary diagnosis of laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 (co-primary outcome); and 2) severe disease as defined by admission to intensive care unit and/or death attributed to Covid-19 (co-primary outcome). RESULTS: Among patients with CeD (n=40,963) and controls (n=183,892), the risk of hospital admission for Covid-19 was 2.9 and 2.2 per 1000 person-years respectively. After adjusting for comorbidities, the risk of hospitalization for Covid-19 was not significantly increased in patients with CeD (HR 1.10; 95% CI 0.80-1.50), nor was the risk of severe Covid-19 increased (HR 0.97; 95% CI 0.59-1.59). Results were similarly null when we compared CeD patients to their non-CeD siblings with regard to these outcomes. Among all patients with CeD and controls hospitalized with a diagnosis of Covid-19 (n=58 and n=202, respectively), there was no significant difference in mortality (HR for CeD compared to controls 0.96; 95% CI 0.46-2.02). CONCLUSION: In this population-based study, CeD was not associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for Covid-19 or intensive care unit and/or death attributed to Covid-19.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242655, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibody diagnostics play an important role in disease detection and can potentially aid in monitoring of the immune responses to see if an individual has developed immunity. Developing high throughput diagnostics which does not involve handling of infectious material becomes imperative in the case of pandemics such as the recent outbreak of SARS-CoV2. METHODS: A protein microarray technology was used to detect the plurality of antibody response to four novel antigens namely S1 glycoprotein, Receptor binding domain (RBD), S2 glycoprotein and Nucleoprotein of the novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV2 using serum samples. A DBS card was additionally used to compare its performance with a venipuncture-based serum separator tube (SST) draw. RESULTS: The three main subclasses of antibodies IgM, IgA and IgG were analyzed to see the variations in immune responses in the affected population and compared to their microbial RT-PCR based NP swab results. The clinical sensitivity and specificity were determined to be 99.67% and 99.77%. In the matrix comparison study, which would enable patients to test without risk of transmitting the virus, DBS (Dried Blood Spot) matched with higher than 98% accuracy to a venipuncture-based SST collection. CONCLUSION: Multiplex testing enables higher sensitivity and specificity which is essential while establishing exposure on a population scale. This flexible platform along with a discrete collection methodology would be crucial and broadly useful to scale up testing in current and future pandemics. Minimum sample volume that can be collected using DBS cards can be processed in this multiplex pillar plate format enabling the capacity to provide the reliability of high throughput analyzers while having the ease of collection similar to rapid tests.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Mass Screening/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Dysphagia ; 36(2): 170-182, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639039

ABSTRACT

At the time of writing this paper, there are over 11 million reported cases of COVID-19 worldwide. Health professionals involved in dysphagia care are impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in their day-to-day practices. Otolaryngologists, gastroenterologists, rehabilitation specialists, and speech-language pathologists are subject to virus exposure due to their proximity to the aerodigestive tract and reliance on aerosol-generating procedures in swallow assessments and interventions. Across the globe, professional societies and specialty associations are issuing recommendations about which procedures to use, when to use them, and how to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission during their use. Balancing safety for self, patients, and the public while maintaining adequate evidence-based dysphagia practices has become a significant challenge. This paper provides current evidence on COVID-19 transmission during commonly used dysphagia practices and provides recommendations for protection while conducting these procedures. The paper summarizes current understanding of dysphagia in patients with COVID-19 and draws on evidence for dysphagia interventions that can be provided without in-person consults and close proximity procedures including dysphagia screening and telehealth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Infection Control/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , COVID-19/transmission , Humans
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