Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
1.
Virus Evol ; 8(2): veac054, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931907

ABSTRACT

Recombination contributes to the genetic diversity found in coronaviruses and is known to be a prominent mechanism whereby they evolve. It is apparent, both from controlled experiments and in genome sequences sampled from nature, that patterns of recombination in coronaviruses are non-random and that this is likely attributable to a combination of sequence features that favour the occurrence of recombination break points at specific genomic sites, and selection disfavouring the survival of recombinants within which favourable intra-genome interactions have been disrupted. Here we leverage available whole-genome sequence data for six coronavirus subgenera to identify specific patterns of recombination that are conserved between multiple subgenera and then identify the likely factors that underlie these conserved patterns. Specifically, we confirm the non-randomness of recombination break points across all six tested coronavirus subgenera, locate conserved recombination hot- and cold-spots, and determine that the locations of transcriptional regulatory sequences are likely major determinants of conserved recombination break-point hotspot locations. We find that while the locations of recombination break points are not uniformly associated with degrees of nucleotide sequence conservation, they display significant tendencies in multiple coronavirus subgenera to occur in low guanine-cytosine content genome regions, in non-coding regions, at the edges of genes, and at sites within the Spike gene that are predicted to be minimally disruptive of Spike protein folding. While it is apparent that sequence features such as transcriptional regulatory sequences are likely major determinants of where the template-switching events that yield recombination break points most commonly occur, it is evident that selection against misfolded recombinant proteins also strongly impacts observable recombination break-point distributions in coronavirus genomes sampled from nature.

2.
Sci Adv ; 8(12): eabm0220, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765069

ABSTRACT

Conventional approaches to isolate and characterize nanobodies are laborious. We combine phage display, multivariate enrichment, next-generation sequencing, and a streamlined screening strategy to identify numerous anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nanobodies. We characterize their potency and specificity using neutralization assays and hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). The most potent nanobodies bind to the receptor binding motif of the receptor binding domain (RBD), and we identify two exceptionally potent members of this category (with monomeric half-maximal inhibitory concentrations around 13 and 16 ng/ml). Other nanobodies bind to a more conserved epitope on the side of the RBD and are able to potently neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 founder virus (42 ng/ml), the Beta variant (B.1.351/501Y.V2) (35 ng/ml), and also cross-neutralize the more distantly related SARS-CoV-1 (0.46 µg/ml). The approach presented here is well suited for the screening of phage libraries to identify functional nanobodies for various biomedical and biochemical applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Camelids, New World , Single-Domain Antibodies , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Camelids, New World/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
3.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(4)2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758789

ABSTRACT

Among the 30 nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the Omicron S-gene are 13 that have only rarely been seen in other SARS-CoV-2 sequences. These mutations cluster within three functionally important regions of the S-gene at sites that will likely impact (1) interactions between subunits of the Spike trimer and the predisposition of subunits to shift from down to up configurations, (2) interactions of Spike with ACE2 receptors, and (3) the priming of Spike for membrane fusion. We show here that, based on both the rarity of these 13 mutations in intrapatient sequencing reads and patterns of selection at the codon sites where the mutations occur in SARS-CoV-2 and related sarbecoviruses, prior to the emergence of Omicron the mutations would have been predicted to decrease the fitness of any virus within which they occurred. We further propose that the mutations in each of the three clusters therefore cooperatively interact to both mitigate their individual fitness costs, and, in combination with other mutations, adaptively alter the function of Spike. Given the evident epidemic growth advantages of Omicron overall previously known SARS-CoV-2 lineages, it is crucial to determine both how such complex and highly adaptive mutation constellations were assembled within the Omicron S-gene, and why, despite unprecedented global genomic surveillance efforts, the early stages of this assembly process went completely undetected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(6): 813-820, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) variant, which was first identified in November, 2021, spread rapidly in many countries, with a spike protein highly diverged from previously known variants, and raised concerns that this variant might evade neutralising antibody responses. We therefore aimed to characterise the sensitivity of the omicron variant to neutralisation. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, we cloned the sequence encoding the omicron spike protein from a diagnostic sample to establish an omicron pseudotyped virus neutralisation assay. We quantified the neutralising antibody ID50 (the reciprocal dilution that produces 50% inhibition) against the omicron spike protein, and the fold-change in ID50 relative to the spike of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 (ie, the pandemic founder variant), for one convalescent reference plasma pool (WHO International Standard for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin [20/136]), three reference serum pools from vaccinated individuals, and two cohorts from Stockholm, Sweden: one comprising previously infected hospital workers (17 sampled in November, 2021, after vaccine rollout and nine in June or July, 2020, before vaccination) and one comprising serum from 40 randomly sampled blood donors donated during week 48 (Nov 29-Dec 5) of 2021. Furthermore, we assessed the neutralisation of omicron by five clinically relevant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). FINDINGS: Neutralising antibody responses in reference sample pools sampled shortly after infection or vaccination were substantially less potent against the omicron variant than against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 (seven-fold to 42-fold reduction in ID50 titres). Similarly, for sera obtained before vaccination in 2020 from a cohort of convalescent hospital workers, neutralisation of the omicron variant was low to undetectable (all ID50 titres <20). However, in serum samples obtained in 2021 from two cohorts in Stockholm, substantial cross-neutralisation of the omicron variant was observed. Sera from 17 hospital workers after infection and subsequent vaccination had a reduction in average potency of only five-fold relative to wild-type SARS-CoV-2 (geometric mean ID50 titre 495 vs 105), and two donors had no reduction in potency. A similar pattern was observed in randomly sampled blood donors (n=40), who had an eight-fold reduction in average potency against the omicron variant compared with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 (geometric mean ID50 titre 369 vs 45). We found that the omicron variant was resistant to neutralisation (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] >10 µg/mL) by mAbs casirivimab (REGN-10933), imdevimab (REGN-10987), etesevimab (Ly-CoV016), and bamlanivimab (Ly-CoV555), which form part of antibody combinations used in the clinic to treat COVID-19. However, S309, the parent of sotrovimab, retained most of its activity, with only an approximately two-fold reduction in potency against the omicron variant compared with ancestral D614G SARS-CoV-2 (IC50 0·1-0·2 µg/mL). INTERPRETATION: These data highlight the extensive, but incomplete, evasion of neutralising antibody responses by the omicron variant, and suggest that boosting with licensed vaccines might be sufficient to raise neutralising antibody titres to protective levels. FUNDING: European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, SciLifeLab, and the Erling-Persson Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 11(3): e1379, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729116

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Population-level measures of seropositivity are critical for understanding the epidemiology of an emerging pathogen, yet most antibody tests apply a strict cutoff for seropositivity that is not learnt in a data-driven manner, leading to uncertainty when classifying low-titer responses. To improve upon this, we evaluated cutoff-independent methods for their ability to assign likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity to individual samples. Methods: Using robust ELISAs based on SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and the receptor-binding domain (RBD), we profiled antibody responses in a group of SARS-CoV-2 PCR+ individuals (n = 138). Using these data, we trained probabilistic learners to assign likelihood of seropositivity to test samples of unknown serostatus (n = 5100), identifying a support vector machines-linear discriminant analysis learner (SVM-LDA) suited for this purpose. Results: In the training data from confirmed ancestral SARS-CoV-2 infections, 99% of participants had detectable anti-S and -RBD IgG in the circulation, with titers differing > 1000-fold between persons. In data of otherwise healthy individuals, 7.2% (n = 367) of samples were of uncertain serostatus, with values in the range of 3-6SD from the mean of pre-pandemic negative controls (n = 595). In contrast, SVM-LDA classified 6.4% (n = 328) of test samples as having a high likelihood (> 99% chance) of past infection, 4.5% (n = 230) to have a 50-99% likelihood, and 4.0% (n = 203) to have a 10-49% likelihood. As different probabilistic approaches were more consistent with each other than conventional SD-based methods, such tools allow for more statistically-sound seropositivity estimates in large cohorts. Conclusion: Probabilistic antibody testing frameworks can improve seropositivity estimates in populations with large titer variability.

6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 155, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616979

ABSTRACT

Antibodies binding to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike have therapeutic promise, but emerging variants show the potential for virus escape. This emphasizes the need for therapeutic molecules with distinct and novel neutralization mechanisms. Here we describe the isolation of a nanobody that interacts simultaneously with two RBDs from different spike trimers of SARS-CoV-2, rapidly inducing the formation of spike trimer-dimers leading to the loss of their ability to attach to the host cell receptor, ACE2. We show that this nanobody potently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2, including the beta and delta variants, and cross-neutralizes SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we demonstrate the therapeutic potential of the nanobody against SARS-CoV-2 and the beta variant in a human ACE2 transgenic mouse model. This naturally elicited bispecific monomeric nanobody establishes an uncommon strategy for potent inactivation of viral antigens and represents a promising antiviral against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Bispecific/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice, Transgenic , Neutralization Tests/methods , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Multimerization/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Single-Domain Antibodies/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
7.
Cell Rep ; 38(3): 110242, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588137

ABSTRACT

Characterization of COVID-19 antibodies has largely focused on memory B cells; however, it is the antibody-secreting plasma cells that are directly responsible for the production of serum antibodies, which play a critical role in resolving SARS-CoV-2 infection. Little is known about the specificity of plasma cells, largely because plasma cells lack surface antibody expression, thereby complicating their screening. Here, we describe a technology pipeline that integrates single-cell antibody repertoire sequencing and mammalian display to interrogate the specificity of plasma cells from 16 convalescent patients. Single-cell sequencing allows us to profile antibody repertoire features and identify expanded clonal lineages. Mammalian display screening is used to reveal that 43 antibodies (of 132 candidates) derived from expanded plasma cell lineages are specific to SARS-CoV-2 antigens, including antibodies with high affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) that exhibit potent neutralization and broad binding to the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 variants (of concern/interest).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Plasma Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cells, Cultured , Cohort Studies , Gene Library , HEK293 Cells , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Mammals , Neutralization Tests , Peptide Library , Plasma Cells/chemistry
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296424

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic mitochondrial (mt)DNA molecules can exhibit heteroplasmy in single cells and cause a range of clinical phenotypes, although their contribution to immunity is poorly understood. Here, in mice carrying heteroplasmic C5024T in mt-tRNA Ala – that impairs oxidative phosphorylation – we found a reduced mutation burden in peripheral T and B memory lymphocyte subsets, compared to their naïve counterparts. Furthermore, selection diluting the mutation was induced in vitro by triggering T and B cell antigen receptors. While C5024T dysregulated naïve CD8 + T cell respiration and metabolic remodeling post-activation, these phenotypes were partially ameliorated by selection. Analogous to mice, peripheral blood memory T and B lymphocyte subsets from human MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes) patients – carrying heteroplasmic A3243G in mt-tRNA Leu – displayed a reduced mutation burden, compared to naïve cells. In both humans and mice, mtDNA selection was observed in IgG + antigen-specific B cells after SARS-CoV-2 Spike vaccination, illustrating an on-going process in vivo . Taken together, these data illustrate purifying selection of pathogenic mtDNA variants during the oxidative phosphorylation checkpoints of the naïve-memory lymphocyte transition. Highlights In human MELAS patients (A3243G in mt-tRNA Leu ) and a related mouse model (C5024T in mt-tRNA Ala ), T and B memory subsets displayed a reduced mtDNA mutation burden compared to their naïve counterparts. Selection was observed in antigen-specific IgG + B cells after SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein vaccination. T and B cell antigen receptor stimulation triggered purifying selection in vitro , facilitating mechanistic studies of mtDNA selection. Heteroplasmic pathogenic mutations in mtDNA dysregulated metabolic remodeling after lymphocyte activation and reduced macrophage OXPHOS capacity.

9.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294890

ABSTRACT

Antibodies binding to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike have therapeutic promise, but emerging variants show the potential for virus escape. This emphasizes the need for therapeutic molecules with distinct and novel neutralization mechanisms. Here we isolated a nanobody that interacts simultaneously with two RBDs from different spike trimers of SARS-CoV-2, rapidly inducing the formation of spike trimer-dimers leading to the loss of their ability to attach to the host cell receptor, ACE2. We show that this nanobody potently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2, including the B.1.351 variant, and cross-neutralizes SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we demonstrate the therapeutic potential of the nanobody against SARS-CoV-2 and the B.1.351 variant in a human ACE2 transgenic mouse model. This naturally elicited bispecific monomeric nanobody establishes a novel strategy for potent inactivation of viral antigens and represents a promising antiviral against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

10.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(11): 100450, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475125

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) with resistance to neutralizing antibodies are threatening to undermine vaccine efficacy. Vaccination and infection have led to widespread humoral immunity against the pandemic founder (Wu-Hu-1). Against this background, it is critical to assess the outcomes of subsequent immunization with variant antigens. It is not yet clear whether heterotypic boosts would be compromised by original antigenic sin, where pre-existing responses to a prior variant dampen responses to a new one, or whether the memory B cell repertoire would bridge the gap between Wu-Hu-1 and VOCs. We show, in macaques immunized with Wu-Hu-1 spike, that a single dose of adjuvanted beta variant receptor binding domain (RBD) protein broadens neutralizing antibody responses to heterologous VOCs. Passive transfer of plasma sampled after Wu-Hu-1 spike immunization only partially protects K18-hACE2 mice from lethal challenge with a beta variant isolate, whereas plasma sampled following heterotypic RBD boost protects completely against disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , COVID-19 , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Male , Mice , Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
11.
Cell ; 184(20): 5189-5200.e7, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401295

ABSTRACT

The independent emergence late in 2020 of the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 lineages of SARS-CoV-2 prompted renewed concerns about the evolutionary capacity of this virus to overcome public health interventions and rising population immunity. Here, by examining patterns of synonymous and non-synonymous mutations that have accumulated in SARS-CoV-2 genomes since the pandemic began, we find that the emergence of these three "501Y lineages" coincided with a major global shift in the selective forces acting on various SARS-CoV-2 genes. Following their emergence, the adaptive evolution of 501Y lineage viruses has involved repeated selectively favored convergent mutations at 35 genome sites, mutations we refer to as the 501Y meta-signature. The ongoing convergence of viruses in many other lineages on this meta-signature suggests that it includes multiple mutation combinations capable of promoting the persistence of diverse SARS-CoV-2 lineages in the face of mounting host immune recognition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Codon/genetics , Genes, Viral , Genetic Drift , Host Adaptation/genetics , Humans , Immune Evasion , Phylogeny , Public Health
12.
Biomolecules ; 10(12)2020 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383863

ABSTRACT

Multivalent antibody constructs have a broad range of clinical and biotechnological applications. Nanobodies are especially useful as components for multivalent constructs as they allow increased valency while maintaining a small molecule size. We here describe a novel, rapid method for the generation of bi- and multivalent nanobody constructs with oriented assembly by Cu-free strain promoted azide-alkyne click chemistry (SPAAC). We used sortase A for ligation of click chemistry functional groups site-specifically to the C-terminus of nanobodies before creating C-to-C-terminal nanobody fusions and 4-arm polyethylene glycol (PEG) tetrameric nanobody constructs. We demonstrated the viability of this approach by generating constructs with the SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing nanobody Ty1. We compared the ability of the different constructs to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus and infectious virus in neutralization assays. The generated dimers neutralized the virus similarly to a nanobody-Fc fusion variant, while a 4-arm PEG based tetrameric Ty1 construct dramatically enhanced neutralization of SARS-CoV-2, with an IC50 in the low picomolar range.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Click Chemistry , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Single-Domain Antibodies/chemistry , Single-Domain Antibodies/pharmacology
13.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(7): e1312, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic poses an immense need for accurate, sensitive and high-throughput clinical tests, and serological assays are needed for both overarching epidemiological studies and evaluating vaccines. Here, we present the development and validation of a high-throughput multiplex bead-based serological assay. METHODS: More than 100 representations of SARS-CoV-2 proteins were included for initial evaluation, including antigens produced in bacterial and mammalian hosts as well as synthetic peptides. The five best-performing antigens, three representing the spike glycoprotein and two representing the nucleocapsid protein, were further evaluated for detection of IgG antibodies in samples from 331 COVID-19 patients and convalescents, and in 2090 negative controls sampled before 2020. RESULTS: Three antigens were finally selected, represented by a soluble trimeric form and the S1-domain of the spike glycoprotein as well as by the C-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid. The sensitivity for these three antigens individually was found to be 99.7%, 99.1% and 99.7%, and the specificity was found to be 98.1%, 98.7% and 95.7%. The best assay performance was although achieved when utilising two antigens in combination, enabling a sensitivity of up to 99.7% combined with a specificity of 100%. Requiring any two of the three antigens resulted in a sensitivity of 99.7% and a specificity of 99.4%. CONCLUSION: These observations demonstrate that a serological test based on a combination of several SARS-CoV-2 antigens enables a highly specific and sensitive multiplex serological COVID-19 assay.

14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3695, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275914

ABSTRACT

Serological testing is essential to curb the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, most assays are still limited to single analytes and samples collected within healthcare. Thus, we establish a multianalyte and multiplexed approach to reliably profile IgG and IgM levels against several versions of SARS-CoV-2 proteins (S, RBD, N) in home-sampled dried blood spots (DBS). We analyse DBS collected during spring of 2020 from 878 random and undiagnosed individuals from the population in Stockholm, Sweden, and use classification approaches to estimate an accumulated seroprevalence of 12.5% (95% CI: 10.3%-14.7%). This includes 5.4% of the samples being IgG+IgM+ against several SARS-CoV-2 proteins, as well as 2.1% being IgG-IgM+ and 5.0% being IgG+IgM- for the virus' S protein. Subjects classified as IgG+ for several SARS-CoV-2 proteins report influenza-like symptoms more frequently than those being IgG+ for only the S protein (OR = 6.1; p < 0.001). Among all seropositive cases, 30% are asymptomatic. Our strategy enables an accurate individual-level and multiplexed assessment of antibodies in home-sampled blood, assisting our understanding about the undiagnosed seroprevalence and diversity of the immune response against the coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Blood Specimen Collection/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , Dried Blood Spot Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sweden , Young Adult
15.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(4): 100252, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164615

ABSTRACT

The outbreak and spread of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2) is a current global health emergency, and effective prophylactic vaccines are needed urgently. The spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 mediates entry into host cells, and thus is the target of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we show that adjuvanted protein immunization with soluble SARS-CoV-2 spike trimers, stabilized in prefusion conformation, results in potent antibody responses in mice and rhesus macaques, with neutralizing antibody titers exceeding those typically measured in SARS-CoV-2 seropositive humans by more than one order of magnitude. Neutralizing antibody responses were observed after a single dose, with exceptionally high titers achieved after boosting. A follow-up to monitor the waning of the neutralizing antibody responses in rhesus macaques demonstrated durable responses that were maintained at high and stable levels at least 4 months after boosting. These data support the development of adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 prefusion-stabilized spike protein subunit vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Macaca mulatta , Male , /metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Protein Domains/immunology , Protein Subunits/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Time Factors , Vaccination
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3125, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065956

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its rapid spread into a global pandemic made the urgent development of scalable vaccines to prevent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) a global health and economic imperative. Here, we characterized and compared the immunogenicity of two alphavirus-based DNA-launched self-replicating (DREP) vaccine candidates encoding either SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (DREP-S) or a spike ectodomain trimer stabilized in prefusion conformation (DREP-Secto). We observed that the two DREP constructs were immunogenic in mice inducing both binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as T cell responses. Interestingly, the DREP coding for the unmodified spike turned out to be more potent vaccine candidate, eliciting high titers of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies that were able to efficiently neutralize pseudotyped virus after a single immunization. In addition, both DREP constructs were able to efficiently prime responses that could be boosted with a heterologous spike protein immunization. These data provide important novel insights into SARS-CoV-2 vaccine design using a rapid response DNA vaccine platform. Moreover, they encourage the use of mixed vaccine modalities as a strategy to combat SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Animals , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
17.
EBioMedicine ; 63: 103197, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic, infecting millions of people. A safe, effective vaccine is urgently needed and remains a global health priority. Subunit vaccines are used successfully against other viruses when administered in the presence of an effective adjuvant. METHODS: We evaluated three different clinically tested adjuvant systems in combination with the SARS-CoV-2 pre-fusion stabilized (S-2P) spike protein using a one-dose regimen in mice. FINDINGS: Whilst spike protein alone was only weakly immunogenic, the addition of either Aluminum hydroxide, a squalene based oil-in-water emulsion system (SE) or a cationic liposome-based adjuvant significantly enhanced antibody responses against the spike receptor binding domain (RBD). Kinetics of antibody responses differed, with SE providing the most rapid response. Neutralizing antibodies developed after a single immunization in all adjuvanted groups with ID50 titers ranging from 86-4063. Spike-specific CD4 T helper responses were also elicited, comprising mainly of IFN-γ and IL-17 producing cells in the cationic liposome adjuvanted group, and more IL-5- and IL-10-secreting cells in the AH group. INTERPRETATION: These results demonstrate that adjuvanted spike protein subunit vaccine is a viable strategy for rapidly eliciting SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and CD4 T cell responses of various qualities depending on the adjuvant used, which can be explored in further vaccine development against COVID-19. FUNDING: This work was supported by the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement no. 101003653.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Aluminum Hydroxide/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Immunization , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Liposomes/chemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Squalene/chemistry , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5588, 2020 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910349

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Therapeutic neutralizing antibodies constitute a key short-to-medium term approach to tackle COVID-19. However, traditional antibody production is hampered by long development times and costly production. Here, we report the rapid isolation and characterization of nanobodies from a synthetic library, known as sybodies (Sb), that target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Several binders with low nanomolar affinities and efficient neutralization activity were identified of which Sb23 displayed high affinity and neutralized pseudovirus with an IC50 of 0.6 µg/ml. A cryo-EM structure of the spike bound to Sb23 showed that Sb23 binds competitively in the ACE2 binding site. Furthermore, the cryo-EM reconstruction revealed an unusual conformation of the spike where two RBDs are in the 'up' ACE2-binding conformation. The combined approach represents an alternative, fast workflow to select binders with neutralizing activity against newly emerging viruses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains/immunology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5064, 2020 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841875

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 may pose an occupational health risk to healthcare workers. Here, we report the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, self-reported symptoms and occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers at a large acute care hospital in Sweden. The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was 19.1% among the 2149 healthcare workers recruited between April 14th and May 8th 2020, which was higher than the reported regional seroprevalence during the same time period. Symptoms associated with seroprevalence were anosmia (odds ratio (OR) 28.4, 95% CI 20.6-39.5) and ageusia (OR 19.2, 95% CI 14.3-26.1). Seroprevalence was also associated with patient contact (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.5) and covid-19 patient contact (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.2-5.3). These findings imply an occupational risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers. Continued measures are warranted to assure healthcare workers safety and reduce transmission from healthcare workers to patients and to the community.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sweden/epidemiology
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4420, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744371

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells through an interaction between the spike glycoprotein and the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Directly preventing this interaction presents an attractive possibility for suppressing SARS-CoV-2 replication. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of an alpaca-derived single domain antibody fragment, Ty1, that specifically targets the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike, directly preventing ACE2 engagement. Ty1 binds the RBD with high affinity, occluding ACE2. A cryo-electron microscopy structure of the bound complex at 2.9 Å resolution reveals that Ty1 binds to an epitope on the RBD accessible in both the 'up' and 'down' conformations, sterically hindering RBD-ACE2 binding. While fusion to an Fc domain renders Ty1 extremely potent, Ty1 neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudovirus as a 12.8 kDa nanobody, which can be expressed in high quantities in bacteria, presenting opportunities for manufacturing at scale. Ty1 is therefore an excellent candidate as an intervention against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Camelids, New World/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Single-Domain Antibodies/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes/immunology , Epitopes/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL