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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686843

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a deadly pandemic that has affected millions of people worldwide, is associated with cardiovascular complications, including venous and arterial thromboembolic events. Viral spike proteins, in fact, may promote the release of prothrombotic and inflammatory mediators. Vaccines, coding for the spike protein, are the primary means for preventing COVID-19. However, some unexpected thrombotic events at unusual sites, most frequently located in the cerebral venous sinus but also splanchnic, with associated thrombocytopenia, have emerged in subjects who received adenovirus-based vaccines, especially in fertile women. This clinical entity was soon recognized as a new syndrome, named vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, probably caused by cross-reacting anti-platelet factor-4 antibodies activating platelets. For this reason, the regulatory agencies of various countries restricted the use of adenovirus-based vaccines to some age groups. The prevailing opinion of most experts, however, is that the risk of developing COVID-19, including thrombotic complications, clearly outweighs this potential risk. This point-of-view aims at providing a narrative review of epidemiological issues, clinical data, and pathogenetic hypotheses of thrombosis linked to both COVID-19 and its vaccines, helping medical practitioners to offer up-to-date and evidence-based counseling to their often-alarmed patients with acute or chronic cardiovascular thrombotic events.

2.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(12): 969-980, 2021 Dec.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542227

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a deadly pandemic that has affected millions of people worldwide, is also associated with cardiovascular complications, such as venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The viral spike protein, in fact, may promote the release of prothrombotic and inflammatory mediators. Vaccines, coding for the spike protein, are the primary measure for preventing COVID-19. However, some unexpected thrombotic events at unusual sites, most frequently the cerebral venous and splanchnic districts, with associated thrombocytopenia, have emerged in subjects who received adenovirus-based vaccines, especially in fertile women. This clinical entity has been rapidly recognized as a new syndrome, named vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, probably caused by cross-reacting antiplatelet factor 4 antibodies activating platelets. This prompted the regulatory agencies of various countries to restrict the use of adenovirus-based vaccines to specific age groups. The prevailing opinion of most experts, however, is that the risk of developing COVID-19 disease, including thrombosis, clearly outweighs this potential extremely low risk.This paper aims at providing a comprehensive review of epidemiological issues, clinical data and pathogenetic hypotheses of thrombosis linked to both COVID-19 and its vaccines, helping cardiologists to offer an up-to-date and evidence-based counseling to their often-alarmed patients with acute or chronic coronary syndromes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control
3.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(10): 854-860, 2021 Oct.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441022

ABSTRACT

Sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization and improve symptoms in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction compared to enalapril. After 7 years since the publication of the results of PARADIGM-HF, further insight has been gained with potential new indications. Two prospective randomized multicenter studies (PIONEER-HF and TRANSITION) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) have shown an improved clinical outcome and biomarker profile as compared to enalapril, and good tolerability, safety and feasibility of initiating in-hospital administration of S/V. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the favorable effects of S/V in attenuating adverse myocardial remodeling, supporting an early benefit after treatment. Observational data from non-randomized studies in AHF report that in-hospital and pre-discharge prescription of evidence-based drugs associated with better survival still remains suboptimal. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has also negatively impacted on outpatient activities. Therefore, hospitalization, a real crossroads in the history of heart failure, must become a management and therapeutic opportunity for our patients. The objective of this ANMCO position paper is to encourage and facilitate early S/V administration in stabilized patients during hospitalization after an AHF episode, with the aim of improving care efficiency and clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Aminobutyrates , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Biphenyl Compounds , Drug Combinations , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Tetrazoles , Treatment Outcome , Valsartan
4.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 23(Suppl C): C176-C183, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377967

ABSTRACT

Sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization and improve symptoms in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction compared with enalapril. After 7 years since the publication of the results of PARADIGM-HF, further insight has been gained with potential new indications. Two prospective randomized multicentre studies (PIONEER-HF and TRANSITION) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) have shown an improved clinical outcome and biomarker profile as compared with enalapril, and good tolerability, safety, and feasibility of initiating in-hospital administration of S/V. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the favourable effects of S/V in attenuating adverse myocardial remodelling, supporting an early benefit after treatment. Observational data from non-randomized studies in AHF report that in-hospital and pre-discharge prescription of evidence-based drugs associated with better survival still remain suboptimal. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has also negatively impacted on outpatient activities. Therefore, hospitalization, a real crossroad in the history of heart failure, must become a management and therapeutic opportunity for our patients. The objective of this ANMCO position paper is to encourage and facilitate early S/V administration in stabilized patients during hospitalization after an AHF episode, with the aim of improving care efficiency and clinical outcome.

5.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 23(Suppl C): C154-C163, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377966

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented event that has brought deep changes in hospital facilities with reshaping of the health system organization, revealing inadequacies of current hospital and local health systems. When the COVID-19 emergency will end, further evaluation of the national health system, new organization of acute wards, and a further evolution of the entire health system will be needed to improve care during the chronic phase of disease. Therefore, new standards for healthcare personnel, more efficient organization of hospital facilities for patients with acute illnesses, improvement of technological approaches, and better integration between hospital and territorial services should be pursued. With experience derived from the COVID-19 pandemic,new models, paradigms, interventional approaches, values and priorities should be suggested and implemented.

6.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(8): 610-619, 2021 Aug.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325472

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented event that has brought deep changes in hospital facilities with reshaping of the health system organization, revealing inadequacies of current hospital and local health systems. When the COVID-19 emergency will end, further evaluation of the national health system, new organization of acute wards, and a further evolution of the entire health system will be needed to improve care during the chronic phase of disease. Therefore, new standards for healthcare personnel, more efficient organization of hospital facilities for patients with acute illnesses, improvement of technological approaches, and better integration between hospital and territorial services should be pursued. With experience derived from the COVID-19 pandemic, new models, paradigms, interventional approaches, values and priorities should be suggested and implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Humans , Italy , National Health Programs/organization & administration
7.
European Heart Journal Supplements ; 22(Supplement_G):G233-G238, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-732037

ABSTRACT

Infections by SARS CoV2 - COVID-19 became in a short time a worldwide health emergency. The present SARS-CoV-2 pandemic induced in a short time, an unprecedented impact on public health and on the pre-existing care pathways. In order to appropriately address this epidemiological emergency, urgent solutions were needed, such as remodelling or stopping hospitalization and deferrable clinical activities to avoid spreading the SARS-CoV-2 infection. After the first emergency lockdown phase, care pathways must guarantee healthcare to patients and preserve the safety of the healthcare personnel and of all the other subjects that refer to the cardiological surgeries. Rigorous prescriptive appropriateness of the requested exams with consequent reduction of unnecessary examinations is an essential requirement to preserve prioritized diagnostic and care pathways to patients in need, minimizing the risks connected to the SARS-CoV-2 contagion in hospitals. Telemedicine services represent a valid answer to cardiovascular disease patients’ need for care and assistance, including those in quarantine and voluntary isolation. These services successfully contribute to fight the spread of the virus guaranteeing at the same time therapy and support through remote services that must therefore be considered a resource to be implemented and enhanced. This document has to be used by the healthcare personnel working in hospitals and in district offices, if applicable, and aims at managing patients, in complete safety and considered not suspect/not probable (‘not at risk’) of SARS-CoV-2 infection, eligible for diagnostic activity and subsequent therapy in outpatient surgeries. In particular, this document provides indications for patient evaluation to prevent COVID-19 exposure, gives general indications on managing appointments and waiting rooms, on how to strictly adhere to environmental safety measures, on the proper use of Individual Protective Equipment (IPE). It also provides specific indications for outpatient service procedures, like electrocardiogram, cardiologic examination, cardiologic checkup, Dynamic Holter Electrocardiogram, Transthoracic Echocardiography, Echo Stress, Transoesophageal Echocardiography, Bike Ergometer stress test, Ergospirometry, Outpatient Checkup of implantable electronic cardiac devices.

8.
European Heart Journal Supplements ; 22(Supplement_G):G211-G216, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-732033

ABSTRACT

The aim of this document is the management and organization of patients in need of urgent access to electrophysiology (EP) and pacing procedures during the COVID-19 emergency. Specifically, non-deferrable procedures or irreplaceable with a drug therapy prior to the resolution of the COVID-19 virus emergency [pacemaker (PM) implant/replacement/urgent defibrillator (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, ICD) or arrhythmic storm or other indication of non-deferrable ablation]. The pacing and electrophysiological procedures urgent as they may be, less and less frequently represent situations of emergency, therefore for almost all cases, it is possible to perform a swab test to determine the positivity to COVID-19 of the patient. In cases where this is not possible, due to situations of emergency, the recommendations and procedures we have indicated are advisable, if not mandatory, in order to avoid the spreading of the virus to healthcare personnel and other patients.

11.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(5): 336-340, 2020 05.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-456893
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