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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on persons with disabilities (PwDs) in India. About 27.4 million cases were reported as of 27 May 2021. The continuing pandemic in the form of subsequent waves is expected to have negative repercussions for the disabled globally, particularly in India, where access to health, rehabilitation, and social care services is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown restrictions on PwDs in India. OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of disruption due to COVID-19 and the associated countrywide lockdown restrictions on PwD in India during the first wave. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach, data were collected from a representative sample of 403 persons with disabilities in 14 states in India during the COVID-19 first wave at two different points in time (Lockdown and post-lockdown phase). Factors associated with the negative impact were examined using the Chi-square test for associations. The paired comparisons between 'lockdown' with the 'post-lockdown' phase are presented using McNemar's test and the marginal homogeneity test to compare the proportions. Additionally, a subsample of the participants in the survey was identified to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to gain in-depth insights on the study question and substantiate the quantitative findings. The framework approach was used to conduct a thematic analysis of the qualitative data. RESULTS: About 60% of the PwDs found it difficult to access emergency medical services during the lockdown, and 4.6% post lockdown (p < 0.001). Likewise, 12% found it difficult to access rehabilitation services during the lockdown, and 5% post lockdown (p = 0.03). About 76% of respondents were apprehensive of the risk of infection during the lockdown, and this increased to 92% post lockdown (p < 0.001). Parents with children were significantly impacted due to lockdown in the areas of Medical (p = 0.007), Rehabilitation (p = 0.001), and Mental health services (p = 0.001). The results from the qualitative study supported these quantitative findings. PWDs felt that the lockdown restrictions had negatively impacted their productivity, social participation, and overall engagement in everyday activities. Access to medicines and rehabilitation services was felt to be extremely difficult and detrimental to the therapeutic benefits that were gained by them during the pre-pandemic time. None of the pandemic mitigation plans and services was specific or inclusive of PWDs. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 and the associated lockdown restrictions have negatively impacted persons with disabilities during the first wave in India. It is critical to mainstream disability within the agenda for health and development with pragmatic, context-specific strategies and programs in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics
2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(11): 2944-2950, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497536

ABSTRACT

Of all the eye conditions in the contemporary Indian context, diabetic retinopathy (DR) attracts the maximum attention not just of the eye care fraternity but the entire medical fraternity. Countries are at different stages of evolution in structured DR screening services. In most low and middle income countries, screening is opportunistic, while in most of the high income countries structured population-based DR screening is the established norm. To reduce inequities in access, it is important that all persons with diabetes are provided equal access to DR screening and management services. Such programs have been proven to reverse the magnitude of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy in countries like England and Scotland. DR screening should not be considered an endpoint in itself but the starting point in a continuum of services for effective management of DR services so that the risk of vision loss can be mitigated. Till recently all DR screening programs in India were opportunistic models where persons with diabetes visiting an eye care facility were screened. Since 2016, with support from International funders, demonstration models integrating DR screening services in the public health system were initiated. These pilots showed that a systematic integrated structured DR screening program is possible in India and need to be scaled up across the country. Many DR screening and referral initiatives have been adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and advocacy with the government is critical to facilitate continuous sustainable services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology ; 68(5):703-710, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409396

ABSTRACT

Emerging pandemics show that humans are not infallible and communities need to be prepared. Coronavirus outbreak was first reported towards the end of 2019 and has now been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Worldwide countries are responding differently to the virus outbreak. A delay in detection and response has been recorded in China, as well as in other major countries, which led to an overburdening of the local health systems. On the other hand, some other nations have put in place effective strategies to contain the infection and have recorded a very low number of cases since the beginning of the pandemics. Restrictive measures like social distancing, lockdown, case detection, isolation, contact tracing, and quarantine of exposed had revealed the most efficient actions to control the disease spreading. This review will help the readers to understand the difference in response by different countries and their outcomes. Based on the experience of these countries, India responded to the pandemic accordingly. Only time will tell how well India has faced the outbreak. We also suggest the future directions that the global community should take to manage and mitigate the emergency.

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