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American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S1586, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324063


Introduction: Immune mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) is a rare, but progressive disease that accounts for about 19% of all inflammatory myopathies. Dysphagia occurs in 20-30% of IMNM patients. It often follows proximal muscle weakness and ensues in the later stages of the disease. We report a rare case of IMNM, presenting with dysphagia as the initial symptom, followed by proximal muscle weakness. Case Description/Methods: A 74-year-old male with a past medical history of coronary artery disease, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia presented to the ED with 2-3 weeks of intractable nausea, vomiting, and dysphagia for solids and liquids. Vital signs were stable, and initial labs displayed an AST of 188 U/L and ALT of 64 U/L with a normal bilirubin. Computed tomogram of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were negative. An esophagram showed moderate to severe tertiary contraction, no mass or stricture, and a 13 mm barium tablet passed without difficulty. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy exhibited a spastic lower esophageal sphincter. Botox injections provided no significant relief. He then developed symmetrical proximal motor weakness and repeat labs demonstrated an elevated creatine kinase (CK) level of 6,357 U/L and aldolase of 43.4 U/L. Serology revealed positive PL-7 autoxantibodies, but negative JO-1, PL-12, KU, MI-2, EJ, SRP, anti-smooth muscle, and anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Muscle biopsy did not unveil endomysial inflammation or MHC-1 sarcolemmal upregulation. The diagnosis of IMNM was suspected. A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tube was placed as a mean of an alternative route of nutrition. He was started on steroids and recommended to follow up with outpatient rheumatology. He expired a month later after complications from an unrelated COVID-19 infection. Discussion(s): The typical presentation of IMNM includes painful proximal muscle weakness, elevated CK, presence of myositis-associated autoantibodies, and necrotic muscle fibers without mononuclear cell infiltrates on histology. Dysphagia occurs due to immune-mediated inflammation occurring in the skeletal muscle of the esophagus, resulting in incoordination of swallowing. Immunotherapy and intravenous immunoglobulin are often the mainstay of treatment. Our patient was unique in presentation with dysphagia as an initial presenting symptom of IMNM, as well as elevated enzymes from muscle breakdown. It is critical as clinicians to have a high degree of suspicion for IMNM due to the aggressive nature of the disease and refractoriness to treatment.

American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 116(SUPPL):S16, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1534615


Introduction: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a complex disease that leads to structural damage and dysfunction and can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. CP can create a burden on the healthcare system, especially due to recurrent ED visits. Appropriate follow-up may help to decrease symptoms and improve quality of life. Our study assesses barriers to follow-up after ED visits for CP complaints. Methods: A telephone survey was conducted from patients with CP who present to a tertiary health care system in Detroit with symptoms from CP. All living patients 18 years and older who presented to the ED for CP symptoms were included. Data on demographics and clinic follow-up were extracted by manual chart review. After obtaining informed consent a telephone survey was conducted to obtain data on CP symptoms, severity, follow-up rates, and barriers to follow-up. The social deprivation index (SDI) score was used to compare the socioeconomic status (SES) of patients. Results: A total of 196 patients were screened but only 42 participated of which the mean age was 50.4, 22 (52.4%) were men and 23 (54.8%) were white. 25 (59.5%) developed CP due to alcohol. Statistical analysis showed that CP patients given narcotics in the ED were more likely to follow-up in the clinic than those who did not [95% CI 2.69 (1.21-5.99)]. There was no statistically significant difference in age, gender, race, county of residence, SES, alcohol use, smoking, CP cause, type of follow-up arranged, and abdominal pain frequency and severity among all patients who participated in the survey. Barriers mentioned by patients were financial issues, lack of insurance, lack of transportation, the knowledge that they need to follow-up, insight about their disease, and worrying about contracting COVID-19. Conclusion: This telephone study identified factors that limit follow-up from the ED for patients presenting with CP-related symptoms. Although there was a high drop-out rate the commonly reported factors can be addressed and corrected in the ED. This intervention coupled with appropriate follow-up may lead to improved outcomes and a decrease in ED visits for these patients. Further studies are needed to support this hypothesis.

American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 115:S320-S320, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1070330
Hepatology ; 72(1 SUPPL):263A, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-986151


Background: There is increasing evidence suggesting that liver dysfunction is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 illness However, due to the low prevalence of liver disease and cirrhosis in the general population, larger studies looking at the impact of these conditions have utilized data from international registries which do not necessarily reflect the US population. Our study aims to assess the association between chronic liver disease and COVID-19 clinical outcomes across a single large inpatient cohort Methods: We performed a retrospective single-center study at a large tertiary care hospital All index admissions of adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 between 3/1/2020 and 4/30/2020 were included A manual chart review was performed to collect data on baseline patient characteristics, medical comorbidities, and clinical outcomes Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis were compared to the control group, who had no known underlying liver disease SAS 9 4 was used for analysis Results: A total of 1935 patients met our inclusion criteria of which 1869 (96 6%) had no underlying liver disease, 66 (3 4%) had CLD, and 21 (1 1%) had cirrhosis Table 1 shows baseline patient characteristics There were a higher proportion of males in the CLD and cirrhosis cohorts compared to the control group (67% and 76% vs 50%;p=0 0105) Patients with cirrhosis and chronic liver disease also had a significantly lower average BMI compared to the control group (25 8 and 27 3 vs 31 8;p=0 002) There was no difference in comorbidities between all three cohorts. Patients with cirrhosis had a significantly higher mortality (RR 2 1 [95% CI 1 33-3 62;p=0 0022]) compared to non-cirrhotics There was also a trend towards increased 30-day readmission in the cirrhotic cohort (RR 2 35 [95% CI 0 86-6 42];p=0 0950) however no difference in rate of ICU admission or intubation Patients with CLD did not have an increase in mortality, ICU admission, intubation, or 30-day re-admission compared to the control group Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that cirrhosis is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 while chronic liver disease in the absence of cirrhosis does not confer the same degree of clinical risk Future studies performed on a larger scale should evaluate how decompensated disease and MELD score may impact this risk profile.(Table Presented).

Hepatology ; 72(1 SUPPL):287A, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-986147


Background: Based on current literature there appears to be a high prevalence of liver injury (LI) in patients with COVID-19 However, there are limited large scale studies on risk factors, morbidity, and mortality associated with LI in these patients We aim to determine risk factors and outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and LI Methods: We performed a retrospective single-center study at a large tertiary care hospital. All index admissions of adult patients with confirmed COVID19 between 3/1 to 4/30/2020 were included Data on baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes was collected during manual chart review Mild elevation in LFTs (MEL), defined as peak levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TB) above upper limit of normal (ULN) but lower than the threshold for LI. LI was defined as peak ALT/AST three times ULN and/or peak ALP/TB two times ULN ULN threshold values of ALT 52, AST 35, TB 1 2, ALP 140 were used Both cohorts were compared with our control group, who had normal LFTs at presentation and throughout the hospitalization SAS 9 4 was used for analysis Results: A total of 1935 patients were included of which 507 (26 2%) had normal LFTs, 1030 (53 2%) had MEL, and 397 (20 5%) had LI Males were more commonly found in the MEL (p=0 0004) and LI groups compared to control (p< 0001) Patients in the MEL cohort were older (p=0 0005) African Americans were more likely to develop LI (p=0 0318) There was no difference in comorbidities between all groups Among patients with LI, 241 (61%) had a hepatocellular pattern, 20 (5%) had a cholestatic pattern, and 135 (34%) had a mixed pattern Patients with LI had an increased risk of mortality (RR 4 26 [95% CI 3 12, 5 81;p< 0001]), ICU admission (RR 5 52 [95% CI 4 07, 7 49;p< 0001]), intubation (RR 11 01 [95% CI 6 97, 17 34]);p< 0001) and 30-day readmission (1 81 [95% CI 1 17, 2 80;p< 0076]) (Table 2, Figure 1) compared to the control group Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that patients with COVID-19 who present with LI have a significantly increased risk of mortality, mechanical ventilation, ICU admission, and 30-day re-admission compared to patients with MEL and normal LFTs This information is important to appropriately manage COVID-19 patients Further research looking at risk prediction models and pooling multi-center data should include liver injury as a key variable.