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1.
Microorganisms ; 11(5)2023 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232951

ABSTRACT

Rare cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa community-acquired pneumonia (PA-CAP) were reported in non-immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) necrotizing cavitary CAP with a fatal outcome in a 53-year-old man previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, who was admitted for dyspnea, fever, cough, hemoptysis, acute respiratory failure and a right upper lobe opacification. Six hours after admission, despite effective antibiotic therapy, he experienced multi-organ failure and died. Autopsy confirmed necrotizing pneumonia with alveolar hemorrhage. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures were positive for PA serotype O:9 belonging to ST1184. The strain shares the same virulence factor profile with reference genome PA01. With the aim to better investigate the clinical and molecular characteristics of PA-CAP, we considered the literature of the last 13 years concerning this topic. The prevalence of hospitalized PA-CAP is about 4% and has a mortality rate of 33-66%. Smoking, alcohol abuse and contaminated fluid exposure were the recognized risk factors; most cases presented the same symptoms described above and needed intensive care. Co-infection of PA-influenza A is described, which is possibly caused by influenza-inducing respiratory epithelial cell dysfunction: the same pathophysiological mechanism could be assumed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Considering the high rate of fatal outcomes, additional studies are needed to identify sources of infections and new risk factors, along with genetic and immunological features. Current CAP guidelines should be revised in light of these results.

2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8956, 2023 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236302

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to characterize frailty and resilience in people evaluated for Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome (PACS), in relation to quality of life (QoL) and Intrinsic Capacity (IC). This cross-sectional, observational, study included consecutive people previously hospitalized for severe COVID-19 pneumonia attending Modena (Italy) PACS Clinic from July 2020 to April 2021. Four frailty-resilience phenotypes were built: "fit/resilient", "fit/non-resilient", "frail/resilient" and "frail/non-resilient". Frailty and resilience were defined according to frailty phenotype and Connor Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC-25) respectively. Study outcomes were: QoL assessed by means of Symptoms Short form health survey (SF-36) and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L) and IC by means of a dedicated questionnaire. Their predictors including frailty-resilience phenotypes were explored in logistic regressions. 232 patients were evaluated, median age was 58.0 years. PACS was diagnosed in 173 (74.6%) patients. Scarce resilience was documented in 114 (49.1%) and frailty in 72 (31.0%) individuals. Predictors for SF-36 score < 61.60 were the phenotypes "frail/non-resilient" (OR = 4.69, CI 2.08-10.55), "fit/non-resilient" (OR = 2.79, CI 1.00-7.73). Predictors for EQ-5D-5L < 89.7% were the phenotypes "frail/non-resilient" (OR = 5.93, CI 2.64-13.33) and "frail/resilient" (OR = 5.66, CI 1.93-16.54). Predictors of impaired IC (below the mean score value) were "frail/non-resilient" (OR = 7.39, CI 3.20-17.07), and "fit/non-resilient" (OR = 4.34, CI 2.16-8.71) phenotypes. Resilience and frailty phenotypes may have a different impact on wellness and QoL and may be evaluated in people with PACS to identify vulnerable individuals that require suitable interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Humans , Aged , Frail Elderly , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Geriatric Assessment
3.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since limited data are available, we aimed to compare the efficacy and durability of dolutegravir and darunavir in advanced naïve patients. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter study including AIDS- or late-presenting (def. CD4 ≤ 200/µL) HIV-infected patients starting dolutegravir or ritonavir/cobicistat-boosted darunavir+2NRTIs. Patients were followed from the date of first-line therapy initiation (baseline, BL) to the discontinuation of darunavir or dolutegravir, or for a maximum of 36 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Overall 308 patients (79.2% males, median age 43 years, 40.3% AIDS-presenters, median CD4 66 cells/µL) were enrolled; 181 (58.8%) and 127 (41.2%) were treated with dolutegravir and darunavir, respectively. Incidence of treatment discontinuation (TD), virological failure (VF, defined as a single HIV-RNA > 1000 cp/mL or two consecutive HIV-RNA > 50 cp/mL after 6 months of therapy or after virological suppression had been achieved), treatment failure (the first of TD or VF), and optimal immunological recovery (defined as CD4 ≥ 500/µL + CD4 ≥ 30% + CD4/CD8 ≥ 1) were 21.9, 5.2, 25.6 and 1.4 per 100 person-years of follow-up, respectively, without significant differences between dolutegravir and darunavir (p > 0.05 for all outcomes). However, a higher estimated probability of TD for central nervous system (CNS) toxicity (at 36 months: 11.7% vs. 0%, p = 0.002) was observed for dolutegravir, whereas darunavir showed a higher probability of TD for simplification (at 36 months: 21.3% vs. 5.7%, p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Dolutegravir and darunavir showed similar efficacy in AIDS- and late-presenting patients. A higher risk of TD due to CNS toxicity was observed with dolutegravir, and a higher probability of treatment simplification with darunavir.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Male , Humans , Adult , Female , Darunavir/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/adverse effects , RNA , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Viral Load
4.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1123807, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322666

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A growing number of evidences suggest that the combination of hyperinflammation, dysregulated T and B cell response and cytokine storm play a major role in the immunopathogenesis of severe COVID-19. IL-6 is one of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines and its levels are increased during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several observational and randomized studies demonstrated that tocilizumab, an IL-6R blocker, improves survival in critically ill patients both in infectious disease and intensive care units. However, despite transforming the treatment options for COVID-19, IL-6R inhibition is still ineffective in a fraction of patients. Methods: In the present study, we investigated the impact of two doses of tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19 who responded or not to the treatment by analyzing a panel of cytokines, chemokines and other soluble factors, along with the composition of peripheral immune cells, paying a particular attention to T and B lymphocytes. Results: We observed that, in comparison with non-responders, those who responded to tocilizumab had different levels of several cytokines and different T and B cells proportions before starting therapy. Moreover, in these patients, tocilizumab was further able to modify the landscape of the aforementioned soluble molecules and cellular markers. Conclusions: We found that tocilizumab has pleiotropic effects and that clinical response to this drug remain heterogenous. Our data suggest that it is possible to identify patients who will respond to treatment and that the administration of tocilizumab is able to restore the immune balance through the re-establishment of different cell populations affected by SARS-COV-2 infection, highlighting the importance of temporal examination of the pathological features from the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Cytokines , Biomarkers
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(4): 831-833, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314119

ABSTRACT

Causes of blackwater fever, a complication of malaria treatment, are not completely clear, and immune mechanisms might be involved. Clinical management is not standardized. We describe an episode of blackwater fever in a nonimmune 12-year-old girl in Italy who was treated with steroids, resulting in a rapid clinical resolution.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Blackwater Fever , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Female , Humans , Child , Blackwater Fever/complications , Blackwater Fever/drug therapy , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Malaria/drug therapy , Italy , Steroids/therapeutic use , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy
6.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 78(6): 1505-1509, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299584

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The effect of remdesivir on COVID-19 mortality remains conflicting. Elderly individuals are at risk for poor COVID-19 outcomes. We aimed to assess the effect of remdesivir on COVID-19 mortality among elderly individuals, using real-world data. METHODS: Retrospective multinational cohort of individuals aged ≥65 years, hospitalized with COVID-19 in six medical centres between January 2020 and May 2021. Associations with in-hospital mortality were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model with propensity score adjustment for remdesivir therapy and while implementing generalized estimating equations to control for centre effect. Sensitivity analysis was performed by stratification according to the degree of respiratory support. RESULTS: Of 3010 individuals included, 2788 individuals required either oxygen supplementation or non-invasive/invasive mechanical ventilation, 489 (16%) were treated with remdesivir, and 836 (28%) died. Median age was 77 (IQR 70-84) years and 42% were women. Remdesivir was the only therapeutic intervention associated with decreased mortality [adjusted OR (aOR) 0.49, 95% CI 0.37-0.66, P < 0.001]. This protective effect was shown for individuals requiring oxygen support and non-invasive mechanical ventilation, while no association was found among individuals necessitating invasive mechanical ventilation.Risk factors for mortality included invasive ventilation (aOR 5.18, 95% CI 2.46-10.91, P < 0.001), higher serum creatinine (aOR 1.25, 95% CI 1.09-1.43, P = 0.001) and dyspnoea (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.07-1.84, P = 0.015) on presentation, and other non-modifiable factors, such as comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Among elderly individuals hospitalized with COVID-19, remdesivir carries survival benefit for those with moderate to severe disease. Its role among individuals with critical illness should be further assessed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use
7.
Infection ; 2023 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295150

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: People with hematologic malignancies have a significantly higher risk of developing severe and protracted forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to immunocompetent patients, regardless of vaccination status. RESULTS: We describe two cases of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection with multiple relapses of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with follicular lymphoma treated with bendamustine and obinutuzumab or rituximab. The aim is to highlight the complexity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in this fragile group of patients and the necessity of evidence-based strategies to treat them properly. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with hematological malignancies treated with bendamustine and anti-CD20 antibodies had a significant risk of prolonged and relapsing course of COVID-19. Specific preventive and therapeutic strategies should be developed for this group of patients.

10.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284168

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of 30-day survival in elderly patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including patients with COVID-19 aged ≥65 years hospitalized in six European sites (January 2020 to May 2021). Data on demographics, comorbidities, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were collected. A predictive score (FLAMINCOV) was developed using logistic regression. Regression coefficients were used to calculate the score. External validation was performed in a cohort including elderly patients from a major COVID-19 centre in Israel. Discrimination was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in the derivation and validation cohorts. Survival risk groups based on the score were derived and applied to the validation cohort. RESULTS: Among 3010 patients included in the derivation cohort, 30-day survival was 74.5% (2242/3010). The intensive care unit admission rate was 7.6% (228/3010). The model predicting survival included independent functional status (OR, 4.87; 95% CI, 3.93-6.03), a oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2) ratio of >235 (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 3.04-4.63), a C-reactive protein level of <14 mg/dL (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.91-3.04), a creatinine level of <1.3 (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.62-2.52) mg/dL, and absence of fever (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.66). The score was validated in 1174 patients. The FLAMINCOV score ranges from 0 to 15 and showed good discrimination in the derivation (AUC, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.77-0.81; p < 0.001) and validation cohorts (AUC, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.76-0.81; p < 0.001). Thirty-day survival ranged from 39.4% (203/515) to 95.3% (634/665) across four risk groups according to score quartiles in the derivation cohort. Similar proportions were observed in the validation set. DISCUSSION: The FLAMINCOV score identifying elderly with higher or lower chances of survival may allow better triage and management, including intensive care unit admission/exclusion.

11.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1123724, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269509

ABSTRACT

The formation of a robust long-term antigen (Ag)-specific memory, both humoral and cell-mediated, is created following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or vaccination. Here, by using polychromatic flow cytometry and complex data analyses, we deeply investigated the magnitude, phenotype, and functionality of SARS-CoV-2-specific immune memory in two groups of healthy subjects after heterologous vaccination compared to a group of subjects who recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. We find that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) recovered patients show different long-term immunological profiles compared to those of donors who had been vaccinated with three doses. Vaccinated individuals display a skewed T helper (Th)1 Ag-specific T cell polarization and a higher percentage of Ag-specific and activated memory B cells expressing immunoglobulin (Ig)G compared to those of patients who recovered from severe COVID-19. Different polyfunctional properties characterize the two groups: recovered individuals show higher percentages of CD4+ T cells producing one or two cytokines simultaneously, while the vaccinated are distinguished by highly polyfunctional populations able to release four molecules, namely, CD107a, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin (IL)-2. These data suggest that functional and phenotypic properties of SARS-CoV-2 adaptive immunity differ in recovered COVID-19 individuals and vaccinated ones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , B-Lymphocytes , Memory B Cells , Interferons , Immunoglobulin G
13.
J Clin Med ; 12(4)2023 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228143

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the introduction of SDD in a structured protocol for VAP prevention was effective in reducing the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in COVID-19 patients without changes in the microbiological pattern of antibiotic resistance. This observational pre-post study included adult patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) for severe respiratory failure related to SARS-CoV-2 admitted in three COVID-19 intensive care units (ICUs) in an Italian hospital from 22 February 2020 to 8 March 2022. Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) was introduced from the end of April 2021 in the structured protocol for VAP prevention. The SDD consisted of a tobramycin sulfate, colistin sulfate, and amphotericin B suspension applied in the patient's oropharynx and the stomach via a nasogastric tube. Three-hundred-and-forty-eight patients were included in the study. In the 86 patients (32.9%) who received SDD, the occurrence of VAP decreased by 7.7% (p = 0.192) compared to the patients who did not receive SDD. The onset time of VAP, the occurrence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms AP, the length of invasive mechanical ventilation, and hospital mortality were similar in the patients who received and who did not receive SDD. The multivariate analysis adjusted for confounders showed that the use of SDD reduces the occurrence of VAP (HR 0.536, CI 0.338-0.851; p = 0.017). Our pre-post observational study indicates that the use of SDD in a structured protocol for VAP prevention seems to reduce the occurrence of VAP without changes in the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in COVID-19 patients.

14.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1376, 2022 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212034

ABSTRACT

Little is known about SARS-CoV-2 evolution under Molnupiravir and Paxlovid, the only antivirals approved for COVID-19 treatment. By investigating SARS-CoV-2 variability in 8 Molnupiravir-treated, 7 Paxlovid-treated and 5 drug-naïve individuals at 4 time-points (Days 0-2-5-7), a higher genetic distance is found under Molnupiravir pressure compared to Paxlovid and no-drug pressure (nucleotide-substitutions/site mean±Standard error: 18.7 × 10-4 ± 2.1 × 10-4 vs. 3.3 × 10-4 ± 0.8 × 10-4 vs. 3.1 × 10-4 ± 0.8 × 10-4, P = 0.0003), peaking between Day 2 and 5. Molnupiravir drives the emergence of more G-A and C-T transitions than other mutations (P = 0.031). SARS-CoV-2 selective evolution under Molnupiravir pressure does not differ from that under Paxlovid or no-drug pressure, except for orf8 (dN > dS, P = 0.001); few amino acid mutations are enriched at specific sites. No RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) or main proteases (Mpro) mutations conferring resistance to Molnupiravir or Paxlovid are found. This proof-of-concept study defines the SARS-CoV-2 within-host evolution during antiviral treatment, confirming higher in vivo variability induced by Molnupiravir compared to Paxlovid and drug-naive, albeit not resulting in apparent mutation selection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Evolution, Molecular
15.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatment guidelines recommend the tocilizumab use in patients with a CRP of >7.5 mg/dL. We aimed to estimate the causal effect of glucocorticoids + tocilizumab on mortality overall and after stratification for PaO2/FiO2 ratio and CRP levels. METHODS: This was an observational cohort study of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. The primary endpoint was day 28 mortality. Survival analysis was conducted to estimate the conditional and average causal effect of glucocorticoids + tocilizumab vs. glucocorticoids alone using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models with a time-varying variable for the intervention. The hypothesis of the existence of effect measure modification by CRP and PaO2/FiO2 ratio was tested by including an interaction term in the model. RESULTS: In total, 992 patients, median age 69 years, 72.9% males, 597 (60.2%) treated with monotherapy, and 395 (31.8%), adding tocilizumab upon respiratory deterioration, were included. At BL, the two groups differed for median values of CRP (6 vs. 7 mg/dL; p < 0.001) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio (276 vs. 235 mmHg; p < 0.001). In the unadjusted analysis, the mortality was similar in the two groups, but after adjustment for key confounders, a significant effect of glucocorticoids + tocilizumab was observed (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.90). Although the study was not powered to detect interactions (p = 0.41), there was a signal for glucocorticoids + tocilizumab to have a larger effect in subsets, especially participants with high levels of CRP at intensification. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm that glucocorticoids + tocilizumab vs. glucocorticoids alone confers a survival benefit only in patients with a CRP > 7.5 mg/dL prior to treatment initiation and the largest effect for a CRP > 15 mg/dL. Large randomized studies are needed to establish an exact cut-off for clinical use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids , Male , Humans , Aged , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe long-COVID symptoms among older adults, and to assess risk factors for two common long-COVID symptoms: fatigue and dyspnea. METHODS: Multicenter prospective cohort study, conducted in Israel, Switzerland, Spain, and Italy. Included were individuals at least 30 days since COVID-19 diagnosis. We compared long-COVID symptoms between elderly individuals (age>65 years) and younger population (18-65 years); and conducted univariate and multivariable analyses for predictors of long-COVID fatigue and dyspnea. RESULTS: 2333 individuals were evaluated at an average of 5 months [146 days (95% CI 142-150)] following COVID-19 onset. Mean age was 51 and 20.5% were>65 years. Older adults were more likely to be symptomatic, with most common symptoms being fatigue (38%) and dyspnea (30%). They were more likely to complain of cough and arthralgia, and have abnormal chest imaging and pulmonary function tests. Independent risk factors for long-COVID fatigue and dyspnea included female gender, obesity, and closer proximity to COVID-19 diagnosis; older age was not an independent predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Older individuals with long-COVID, have different persisting symptoms, with more pronounced pulmonary impairment. Women and individuals with obesity are at risk. Further research is warranted to investigate the natural history of long-COVID among the elderly population and to assess possible interventions aimed at promoting rehabilitation and well-being.

17.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(8)2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the global efforts to antagonize carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) spreading, it remains an emerging threat with a related mortality exceeding 40% among critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence concerning the best infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies to fight CRAB spreading in endemic hospitals. METHODS: The study was a critical review of the literature aiming to evaluate all available studies reporting IPC measures to control CRAB in ICU and outside ICU in both epidemic and endemic settings in the past 10 years. RESULTS: Among the 12 included studies, the majority consisted of research reports of outbreaks mostly occurred in ICUs. The reported mortality reached 50%. Wide variability was observed related to the frequency of application of recommended CRAB IPC measures among the studies: environmental disinfection (100%); contact precautions (83%); cohorting staff and patients (75%); genotyping (66%); daily chlorhexidine baths (58%); active rectal screening (50%); closing or stopping admissions to the ward (33%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite effective control of CRAB spreading during the outbreaks, the IPC measures reported were heterogeneous and highly dependent on the different setting as well as on the structural characteristics of the wards. Reinforced 'search and destroy' strategies both on the environment and on the patient, proved to be the most effective measures for permanently eliminating CRAB spreading.

18.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(8)2022 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023071

ABSTRACT

A population pharmacokinetic analysis of dalbavancin was conducted in patients with different infection sites. Non-linear mixed effect modeling was used for pharmacokinetic analysis and covariate evaluation. Monte Carlo simulations assessed the probability of target attainment (PTA) of total dalbavancin concentration ≥ 8.04 mg/L over time (associated with ≥90% probability of optimal pharmacodynamic target attainment of fAUC24h/MIC > 111.1 against S. aureus) associated with a single or double dosage, one week apart, of 1000 or 1500 mg in patients with different classes of renal function. Sixty-nine patients with 289 concentrations were included. Most of them (53/69, 76.8%) had bone and joint infections. A two-compartment model adequately fitted dalbavancin concentration-time data. Creatinine clearance (CLCR) was the only covariate associated with dalbavancin clearance. Monte Carlo simulations showed that, in patients with severe renal dysfunction, the 1000 mg single or double one week apart dosage may ensure optimal PTAs of 2 and 5 weeks, respectively. In patients with preserved renal function, the 1500 mg single or double one-week apart dosage may ensure optimal PTAs of 2 and 4 to 6 weeks, respectively. Therapeutic drug monitoring should be considered mandatory for managing inter-individual variability and for supporting clinicians in long-term treatments of subacute and chronic infections.

19.
Ageing Res Rev ; 81: 101686, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982579

ABSTRACT

The post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) is characterized by the persistence of fluctuating symptoms over three months from the onset of the possible or confirmed COVID-19 acute phase. Current data suggests that at least 10% of people with previously documented infection may develop PACS, and up to 50-80% of prevalence is reported among survivors after hospital discharge. This viewpoint will discuss various aspects of PACS, particularly in older adults, with a specific hypothesis to describe PACS as the expression of a modified aging trajectory induced by SARS CoV-2. This hypothesis will be argued from biological, clinical and public health view, addressing three main questions: (i) does SARS-CoV-2-induced alterations in aging trajectories play a role in PACS?; (ii) do people with PACS face immuno-metabolic derangements that lead to increased susceptibility to age-related diseases?; (iii) is it possible to restore the healthy aging trajectory followed by the individual before pre-COVID?. A particular focus will be given to the well-being of people with PACS that could be assessed by the intrinsic capacity model and support the definition of the healthy aging trajectory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
20.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 590, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960513

ABSTRACT

Aging is a major risk factor for developing severe COVID-19, but few detailed data are available concerning immunological changes after infection in aged individuals. Here we describe main immune characteristics in 31 patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection who were >70 years old, compared to 33 subjects <60 years of age. Differences in plasma levels of 62 cytokines, landscape of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, T cell repertoire, transcriptome of central memory CD4+ T cells, specific antibodies are reported along with features of lung macrophages. Elderly subjects have higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, more circulating plasmablasts, reduced plasmatic level of anti-S and anti-RBD IgG3 antibodies, lower proportions of central memory CD4+ T cells, more immature monocytes and CD56+ pro-inflammatory monocytes, lower percentages of circulating follicular helper T cells (cTfh), antigen-specific cTfh cells with a less activated transcriptomic profile, lung resident activated macrophages that promote collagen deposition and fibrosis. Our study underlines the importance of inflammation in the response to SARS-CoV-2 and suggests that inflammaging, coupled with the inability to mount a proper anti-viral response, could exacerbate disease severity and the worst clinical outcome in old patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cytokines , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2 , T Follicular Helper Cells
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