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1.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology ; 29:57, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1812906

ABSTRACT

The novel human coronavirus (CoV) 2019 known as COVID-19, similar to previous CoVs infections outbreaks has posed a serious and an unprecedented challenge on the entire health care system in the world, that needs aggressive preventive and easily accessible measures, policies for effective regular disinfection. Rampant use of disinfectants may pose toxicity to human, environmental hazards and, in some cases, decrease effectiveness and development of resistance due to other ingredients in the disinfectant agents. This review comprehensively highlights the effects of physical and chemical countermeasures and their related potential toxicity on human and environment. The study reveals that physical inactivation especially the effects of temperature, humidity and light mostly ultraviolet-C (UV-C), have significantly demonstrated proven efficacy in reducing the spread of CoV infections. Similarly, chemical countermeasures especially alcoholand iodine-based disinfecting agents have shown potentials inhibition against the survival of the viruses and other pathogenic micro-organisms on surfaces. Large number of disinfectants were reported to contain corrosive chemicals that are toxic to humans especially children and destroy the environment due to unhealthy accumulation and pollution, and other additional ingredients having potentials to develop resistance and decrease effectiveness of the disinfectants. This review sumarizes the imporatnce of physical and chemical preventive countermeasures currently in use against CoV infections for further modifications and translational study to design improved disinfecting agents.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260672, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542194

ABSTRACT

Students of the health sciences are the future frontliners to fight pandemics. The students' participation in COVID-19 response varies across countries and are mostly for educational purposes. Understanding the determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptability is necessary for a successful vaccination program. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among health sciences students in Northwest Nigeria. The study was an online self-administered cross-sectional study involving a survey among students of health sciences in some selected universities in Northwest Nigeria. The survey collected pertinent data from the students, including socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception for COVID-19, and willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. A total of 440 responses with a median (interquartile range) age of 23 (4.0) years were included in the study. The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was 40.0%. Factors that independently predict acceptance of the vaccine were age of 25 years and above (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 2.72; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.44-5.16; p = 0.002), instructions from heads of institutions (aOR, 11.71; 95% CI, 5.91-23.20; p<0.001), trust in the government (aOR, 20.52; 95% CI, 8.18-51.51; p<0.001) and willingness to pay for the vaccine (aOR, 7.92; 95% CI, 2.63-23.85; p<0.001). The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among students of health sciences was low. Older age, mandate by heads of the institution, trust in the government and readiness to pay for the vaccine were associated with acceptance of the vaccine. Therefore, stakeholders should prioritize strategies that would maximize the vaccination uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Students , Universities , Adult , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Nigeria/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Young Adult
3.
chemRxiv; 2020.
Preprint | ChemRxiv | ID: ppcovidwho-351

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an infectious virus that causes mild to severe life-threatening upper respiratory tract infection. The virus emerged in Wuhan, China in 2019, and later spread across the globe. Its genome has been completely sequenced and based on the genomic information, the virus possessed 3C-Like Main Protease (3CLpro), an essential multifunctional enzyme that plays a vital role in the replication and transcription of the virus by cleaving polyprotein at eleven various sites to produce different non-structural proteins. This makes the protein an important target for drug design and discovery. Herein, we analyzed the interaction between the 3CLpro and potential inhibitory compounds identified from the extracts of iZingiber offinaleand iAnacardium occidentaleusing in silico docking and Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulation. The crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 main protease in complex with 02J (5-Methylisoxazole-3-carboxylic acid) and PEJ (composite ligand) (PDCode: 6LU7,2.16Ã…) retrieved from Protein Data Bank (PDB) and subject to structure optimization and energy minimization. A total of twenty-nine compounds were obtained from the extracts of iZingiber offinale /iand the leaves of iAnacardium occidentale. /iThese compounds were screened for physicochemical (Lipinskrule of five, Veber rule, and Egan filter), iPan/i-Assay Interference Structure (PAINS), and pharmacokinetic properties to determine the Pharmaceutical Active Ingredients (PAIs). Of the 29 compounds, only nineteen (19) possessed drug-likeness properties with efficient oral bioavailability and less toxicity. These compounds subjected to molecular docking analysis to determine their binding energies with the 3CLpro. The result of the analysis indicated that the free binding energies of the compounds ranged between Ë—5.08 and -10.24kcal/mol, better than the binding energies of 02j (-4.10kcal/mol) and PJE (-5.07kcal.mol). Six compounds (CID_99615 = -10.24kcal/mol, CID_3981360 = 9.75kcal/mol, CID_9910474 = -9.14kcal/mol, CID_11697907 = -9.10kcal/mol, CID_10503282 = -9.09kcal/mol and CID_620012 = -8.53kcal/mol) with good binding energies further selected and subjected to MD Simulation to determine the stability of the protein-ligand complex. The results of the analysis indicated that all the ligands form stable complexes with the protein, although, CID_9910474 and CID_10503282 had a better stability when compared to other selected phytochemicals (CID_99615, CID_3981360, CID_620012, and CID_11697907).

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