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2.
Br J Haematol ; 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978426

ABSTRACT

To optimise management of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection identifying high-risk patients and maintaining treatment dose intensity is an important issue in patients with aggressive lymphomas. In the present study, we report on the presentation, management, and outcome of an international series of 91 patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma and SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed before/during first-line treatment in 64 patients, during follow-up in 21, and during salvage therapy in six. Among the 64 patients infected before/during first-line chemotherapy, 38 (59%) developed pneumonia and 26 (41%) did not clear the virus. Prolonged exposure to steroids before viral infection and/or treatment with high-dose cytarabine favoured pneumonia development and virus persistence and were associated with poorer survival; 81% of patients who did not clear virus died early from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vaccination was associated with lower pneumonia incidence and in-hospital mortality. Chemotherapy was initiated/resumed in 43 (67%) patients, more commonly among patients who did not develop pneumonia, cleared the virus, or did not receive steroids during infection. Chemotherapy resumption in patients with viral persistence should be indicated cautiously as it was associated with a poorer survival (6-month, 70% and 87%, p = 0.07). None of the 21 patients infected during follow-up died from COVID-19, requiring similar measures as infected subjects in the general population.

3.
Br J Haematol ; 2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968070

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 continues to be a relevant issue among patients with haematological malignancies (HM). Vaccines are frequently not effective in subjects on active treatment. In this multicentre retrospective study of Gruppo Italiano Malattie EMatologiche dell'Adulto (GIMEMA), we collected data from 91 paucisymptomatic HM patients treated with anti-spike neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nMoAbs) to determine time to viral clearance, referencing it to the expected value of 28 days from an historical group of untreated paucisymptomatic patients. Secondary endpoints included rate of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, COVID-19 related death and safety. SARS-CoV-2 molecular swab negativity was obtained in 86 patients (95%), with a median time of 18 days (IQR 13-26; p < 0.0001). We did not find significant variations according to age, diagnosis, treatment type, vaccination status or nMoAbs type. Rate of hospitalization due to COVID-19 progression was 12% (11/91), with 2 patients (2.2%) requiring ICU admission. With a median follow-up of 2.33 months, the overall mortality was 5.5% (5/91), with 3 deaths due to COVID-19. Side effects were rare and self-limiting. Our data suggest that nMoAbs can limit the detrimental effect of immunosuppressive treatments on COVID-19 clinical progression and time to viral clearance. The original trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT04932967.

4.
Hematol Oncol ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935680

ABSTRACT

The impact of secondary infections (SI) on COVID-19 outcome in patients with hematological malignancies (HM) is scarcely documented. To evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of SI, we analyzed the microbiologically documented SI in a large multicenter cohort of adult HM patients with COVID-19. Among 1741 HM patients with COVID-19, 134 (7.7%) had 185 SI, with a 1-month cumulative incidence of 5%. Median time between COVID-19 diagnosis and SI was 16 days (IQR: 5-36). Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and lymphoma/plasma cell neoplasms (PCN) were more frequent diagnoses in SI patients compared to patients without SI (AML: 14.9% vs. 7.1%; lymphoma/PCN 71.7% vs. 65.3%). Patients with SI were older (median age 70 vs. 66 years, p = 0.002), with more comorbidities (median Charlson Comorbidity Index 5 vs. 4, p < 0.001), higher frequency of critical COVID-19 (19.5% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.046), and more frequently not in complete remission (75% vs. 64.7% p = 0.024). Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage were the main sites of isolation for SI. Etiology of infections was bacterial in 80% (n = 148) of cases, mycotic in 9.7% (n = 18) and viral in 10.3% (n = 19); polymicrobial infections were observed in 24 patients (18%). Escherichia coli represented most of Gram-negative isolates (18.9%), while coagulase-negative Staphylococci were the most frequent among Gram-positive (14.2%). The 30-day mortality of patients with SI was higher when compared to patients without SI (69% vs. 15%, p < 0.001). The occurrence of SI worsened COVID-19 outcome in HM patients. Timely diagnosis and adequate management should be considered to improve their prognosis.

7.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 172: 103623, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748099

ABSTRACT

Daratumumab is approved for newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). The use of daratumumab has improved patient outcomes but has changed the frequency and epidemiology of infections. However, the optimal approach to prophylaxis and supportive therapy for daratumumab-emergent infections is unknown and represents an unmet clinical need in MM. Consequently, an expert panel convened to compose recommendations for optimal infection control in patient candidates to or under daratumumab treatment for MM. Scientific evidence on infections secondary to daratumumab was evaluated, and a consensus was developed by group discussion for key questions selected according to the clinical relevance. The following key issues were addressed: infectious risk assessment and risk stratification, infection mitigation strategies, and management of infectious complications in patients with MM treated with daratumumab.


Subject(s)
Multiple Myeloma , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Consensus , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy
9.
Blood Adv ; 6(1): 327-338, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622201

ABSTRACT

Lymphoma represents a heterogeneous hematological malignancy (HM), which is characterized by severe immunosuppression. Patients diagnosed of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the course of HM have been described to have poor outcome, with only few reports specifically addressing lymphoma patients. Here, we investigated the clinical behavior and clinical parameters of a large multicenter cohort of adult patients with different lymphoma subtypes, with the aim of identifying predictors of death. The study included 856 patients, of whom 619 were enrolled prospectively in a 1-year frame and were followed-up for a median of 66 days (range 1-395). Patients were managed as outpatient (not-admitted cohort, n = 388) or required hospitalization (n = 468), and median age was 63 years (range 19-94). Overall, the 30- and 100-days mortality was 13% (95% confidence interval (CI), 11% to 15%) and 23% (95% CI, 20% to 27%), respectively. Antilymphoma treatment, including anti-CD20 containing regimens, did not impact survival. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma had the more favorable survival, but this was partly related to significantly younger age. The time interval between lymphoma diagnosis and COVID-19 was inversely related to mortality. Multivariable analysis recognized 4 easy-to-use factors (age, gender, lymphocyte, and platelet count) that were associated with risk of death, both in the admitted and in the not-admitted cohort (HR 3.79 and 8.85 for the intermediate- and high-risk group, respectively). Overall, our study shows that patients should not be deprived of the best available treatment of their underlying disease and indicates which patients are at higher risk of death. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04352556.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphoma , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Humans , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Lymphoma/therapy , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
Br J Haematol ; 195(3): 371-377, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314037

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with high mortality in patients with haematological malignancies (HM) and rate of seroconversion is unknown. The ITA-HEMA-COV project (NCT04352556) investigated patterns of seroconversion for SARS-CoV-2 IgG in patients with HMs. A total of 237 patients, SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive with at least one SARS-CoV-2 IgG test performed during their care, entered the analysis. Among these, 62 (26·2%) had myeloid, 121 (51·1%) lymphoid and 54 (22·8%) plasma cell neoplasms. Overall, 69% of patients (164 of 237) had detectable IgG SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies. Serologically negative patients (31%, 73 of 237) were evenly distributed across patients with myeloid, lymphoid and plasma cell neoplasms. In the multivariable logistic regression, chemoimmunotherapy [odds ratio (OR), 3·42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1·04-11·21; P = 0·04] was associated with a lower rate of seroconversion. This effect did not decline after 180 days from treatment withdrawal (OR, 0·35; 95% CI: 0·11-1·13; P = 0·08). This study demonstrates a low rate of seroconversion in HM patients and indicates that treatment-mediated immune dysfunction is the main driver. As a consequence, we expect a low rate of seroconversion after vaccination and thus we suggest testing the efficacy of seroconversion in HM patients.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Young Adult
18.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1439, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760875

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented hurdles to the delivery of care to patients with cancer. Patients with hematologic malignancies appear to have a greater risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe disease due to myelosuppression and lymphopenia. The first challenge, therefore, is how to continue to deliver effective, curative therapy to vulnerable patients and at the same time avoid exposing them, and their health care teams (HCT), to SARS-CoV-2. An additional challenge is the timely completion of the diagnostic and staging studies required to formulate appropriate treatment plans. Deferred procedures and avoidance of multiple trips to the surgical, diagnostic, and laboratory suites require same day consolidation of all procedures. With laboratory medicine absorbed by the need to deploy large scale COVID-testing, the availability of routine molecular tests is affected. Finally, we are increasingly faced with the challenge of making complex treatment decisions in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients with aggressive but potentially curable blood cancers. When to treat, how to treat, when to wait, how long to wait, how to predict and manage toxicities, and how to avoid compromising cure rates remains unknown. We present an outline of the scientific, medical, and operational challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic at selected American and European institutions and offer our current view of the key elements of a response. While the peak of the pandemic may be past us, in the absence of a vaccine risks remain, and our alertness and response to future challenges need to be refined and consolidated.

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