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1.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic severely impacted global health. The aim of this study was to compare predictors of symptoms-to-emergency-call timing delay in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and their impact on mortality before and during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: We collected sociodemographic, clinical data, procedural features, pre-admission and intra-hospital outcomes of consecutive patients admitted for ACS in seventeen Italian centers from March to April 2018, 2019, and 2020. RESULTS: In 2020, a 32.92% reduction in ACS admissions was observed compared to 2018 and 2019. Unstable angina, typical and atypical symptoms, and intermittent angina were identified as significant predictors of symptoms-to-emergency-call timing delay before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (p<0.005 for all the items). Differently from 2018-2019, during the pandemic, hypertension and dyspnea (p=0.002 versus [vs] p=0.490 and p=0.001 vs p=0.761 for 2018-2019 and 2020, respectively) did not result as predictors of delay in symptoms-to-emergency-call timing. Among these predictors, only the atypical symptoms (HR 3.36; 95% CI 1.172 - 9.667, p=0.024) in 2020 and the dyspnea (HR 2.64; 95% CI 1.345 - 5.190, p=0.005) in 2018-2019 resulted significantly associated with higher mortality. Finally, the family attendance at the onset of the symptoms resulted in a reduction in symptoms-to-emergency-call timing (in 2020 p<0.001; CI -1710.73; -493.19) and in a trend of reduced mortality (HR 0.31; 95% CI 0.089 - 1.079, p=0.066) in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, atypical symptoms and family attendance at ACS onset were identified, respectively, as adverse and favorable predictors of symptoms-to-emergencycall timing delay and mortality.

2.
Sport Sci Health ; 18(3): 659-669, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942613

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic illness that is impacting the cardiovascular, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, and cognitive function of a large spectrum of the worldwide population. The available pharmacological countermeasures of these long-term effects of COVID-19 are minimal, while myriads of non-specific non-pharmacological treatments are emerging in the literature. In this complicated scenario, particular emphasis should be dedicated to specific exercise interventions tailored for subjects and athletes recovering from COVID-19. Specific guidelines on adapted physical activity in this critical population are unavailable so far, therefore, in this position statement of the Società Italiana di Scienze Motorie e Sportive (SISMeS) the members of the steering committee of the research group Attività Motoria Adattata, Alimentazione, Salute e Fitness have indicated the adapted physical activity approaches to counteract the long-term effects of the COVID-19, both in good health people and athletes.

3.
J Clin Med ; 11(10)2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic increased the complexity of the clinical management and pharmacological treatment of patients presenting with an Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). AIM: to explore the incidence and prognostic impact of in-hospital bleeding in patients presenting with ACS before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We evaluated in-hospital Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major and minor bleeding among 2851 patients with ACS from 17 Italian centers during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., March-April 2020) and in the same period in the previous two years. RESULTS: The incidence of in-hospital TIMI major and minor bleeding was similar before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. TIMI major or minor bleeding was associated with a significant threefold increase in all-cause mortality, with a similar prognostic impact before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: the incidence and clinical impact of in-hospital bleeding in ACS patients was similar before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We confirmed a significant and sizable negative prognostic impact of in-hospital bleeding in ACS patients.

4.
Sustainability ; 14(7):3713, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1785903

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Children spend an ever-increasing amount of time performing sedentary behaviors, and an important part of their daily life is at school. Learning in an outdoor environment improves children’s physical activity levels, and their cognitive and social spheres. Furthermore, physically active breaks are a solution to reduce sedentary behaviors and improve well-being and academic performance. The study evaluated the published literature on physically active breaks during school hours and explored (a) if the interventions were proposed in an outdoor context and (b) the outcomes of these interventions. (2) Methods: This review collected 31,559 articles from different electronic databases. After the screening, the results were analyzed narratively. (3) Results: 41 studies have been included in the analysis. As reported by the results, most of the interventions took place in the classroom, and only three studies were performed outside. A common aspect of all studies is the feasibility of active breaks, assessing positive outcomes. (4) Conclusions: Physically active outdoor breaks are poorly adopted, highlighting the necessity for deeper study on this topic. Although the protocols considered present differences, generally breaks increase physical activity levels, present positive learning outcomes, and improve social well-being. Furthermore, they are sustainable in terms of time, cost, and effort of the teacher.

5.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 7(1)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674691

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, we live in a society crossed by the greatest public health crisis in over a century: the COVID-19 pandemic [...].

6.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602665

ABSTRACT

Aims Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically changed the management and the prognosis of patients experiencing acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Several scientific societies have highlighted the need for dedicated paths to deliver better and faster care to improve outcomes. Nevertheless, data depicting the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on ACS in Italy are still poor. To perform a propensity weighted analysis on a multicentre Italian registry involving patients with ACS managed before vs. during COVID-19 pandemic, taking into account baseline patients characteristics, clinical presentation, procedural aspects, and in-hospital outcomes (death, bleeding, stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke/transient ischaemic attack, mechanical complication, and arrhythmic complication). Methods and results We included all consecutive patients who have suffered from ACS during two periods before (March/April 2018, March/April 2019) vs. the period of COVID-19 pandemic (March/April 2020). A generalized boosted non-parsimonious regression was used to estimate the propensity scores of having an ACS in 2020 (year of COVID-19) vs. 2018/2019 using an average treatment effect and balancing for all baseline confounders. We included 2851 patients admitted to hospital with ACS in 17 Italian centres: 1079 (37.8%) during 2018, 1056 (37.0%) in 2019, and 716 (25.1%) during the first COVID-19 wave of 2020. Seventy (2.5%) patients had a positive swab for SARS-CoV-2 at admission. During 2020 there were higher time-to-emergency-call (P = 0.028) and less diagnosis of unstable angina (P = 0.029) and MINOCA (P = 0.004);none of the admission symptoms differ significantly across the years (P > 0.05) except for fever that was more prevalent in 2020 (P < 0.001). Patients suffering from ACS had lower admission EF (P = 0.006). After PS weighting, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed age (P < 0.001), night admission (P = 0.017), cardiocirculatory arrest before cath-lab (P = 0.041), worst Killip class (P = 0.039), admission EF (P = 0.026), and need for left-ventricle mechanical support (P = 0.011) as independent predictors of in-hospital death. After propensity weighted analysis none of the in-hospital outcomes differed significantly across the years of investigation (all P > 0.05). Conclusions During COVID-19 pandemic in Italy the characteristics and management of ACS was slightly different than the past. However, the rates of ‘hard’, in-hospital outcomes (e.g. deaths) are almost similar to the past, suggesting appropriate care and well-organized emergency-paths for ACS.

7.
Sustainability ; 11(12)20200601.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-1362411

ABSTRACT

Background: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the Italian government has adopted containment measures to control the virus's spread, including limitations to the practice of physical activity (PA). The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of PA, expressed as energy expenditure (MET-minute/week), among the physically active Sicilian population before and during the last seven days of the COVID-19 quarantine. Furthermore, the relation between this parameter and specific demographic and anthropometric variables was analyzed. Methods: 802 Sicilian physically active participants (mean age: 32.27 ± 12.81 years; BMI: 23.44 ± 3.33 kg/m2) were included in the study and grouped based on gender, age and BMI. An adapted version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF) was administered to the participants through an online survey. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum test were used for statistical analyses. Results: As expected, we observed a significant decrease of the total weekly energy expenditure during the COVID-19 quarantine (p < 0.001). A significant variation in the MET-min/wk in the before quarantine condition (p = 0.046) and in the difference between before and during quarantine (p = 0.009) was found for males and females. The male group decreased the PA level more than the female one. Moreover, a significant difference in the MET-min/wk was found among groups distributions of BMI (p < 0.001, during quarantine) and of age (p < 0.001, both before and during quarantine). In particular, the highest and the lowest levels of PA were reported by the young and the elderly, respectively, both before and during quarantine. Finally, the overweight group showed the lowest level of PA during quarantine. Conclusion: Based on our outcomes, we can determine that the current quarantine has negatively affected the practice of PA, with greater impacts among males and overweight subjects. In regards to different age groups, the young, young adults and adults were more affected than senior adults and the elderly.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360752

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak forced Italian students to reduce their daily activities, inducing a seden-tary attitude that was worsened by distanced learning. This study aimed to survey the physical activity levels that were maintained before and during the social restrictions following the pan-demic, their correlation to musculoskeletal pain, as well as analyzing the impact of these COVID-19 restrictions on pain and fatigue that affects daily life activities. A total of 2044 students completed the online questionnaire, of which the results of 1654 participants were eligible. Before the pandemic, the levels of physical activity were distributed as: 19.9% no activity, 30.1% light ac-tivity, 21.5% moderate activity, and 28.5% high activity. After one year of the pandemic, 30.6% of the participants were inactive, 48.1%, 10.9%, and 10.5% stated as maintaining, respectively, light, moderate and high levels of physical activity. Furthermore, 43.5% reported neck pain and 33.5% stated to experience low back pain. Physical activity levels lower than 150 min/week may have predisposed students to suffer from neck pain (1.95 OR at 95% CI, 1.44-2.64) and low back pain (1.79 OR at 95% CI, 1.29-2.49). A positive correlation between physical activity levels, Verbal Descriptive Scale (VDS), and pain frequency have been observed for neck and low back pain (p-value < 0.05). Finally, low physical activity levels were associated with musculoskeletal pain onset and pain worsening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Pain , Exercise , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Pain/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Students , Universities
9.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 78(1): e94-e100, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356725

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Statin therapy has been recently suggested as possible adjuvant treatment to improve the clinical outcome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of preadmission statin therapy in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and to investigate its potential association with acute distress respiratory syndrome (ARDS) at admission and in-hospital mortality. We retrospectively recruited 467 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the emergency department of 10 Italian hospitals. The study population was divided in 2 groups according to the ARDS diagnosis at admission and in-hospital mortality. A multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of ARDS at admission and death during hospitalization among patients with COVID-19. A competing risk analysis in patients taking or not statins before admission was also performed. ARDS at admission was reported in 122 cases (26.1%). There was no statistically significant difference for clinical characteristics between patients presenting with and without ARDS. One hundred seven patients (18.5%) died during the hospitalization; they showed increased age (69.6 ± 13.1 vs. 66.1 ± 14.9; P = 0.001), coronary artery disease (23.4% vs. 12.8%; P = 0.012), and chronic kidney disease (20.6% vs. 11.1%; P = 0.018) prevalence; moreover, they presented more frequently ARDS at admission (48.6% vs. 19.4%; P < 0.001). At multivariable regression model, statin therapy was not associated neither with ARDS at admission nor with in-hospital mortality. Preadmission statin therapy does not seem to show a protective effect in severe forms of COVID-19 complicated by ARDS at presentation and rapidly evolving toward death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
10.
Indian Heart J ; 73(5): 647-649, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rates of in-hospital mortality following percutaneous interventional procedures (PIP) during the COVID-19 pandemic period compared to the non-pandemic period has not been reported so far. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled all consecutive patients admitted for PIP across five centers from February 2020 to May 2020. RESULTS: A total of 4092 PIP were performed during the reference periods. The total number of procedures dropped from 2380 to 1712 (28.0% reduction). Overall in-hospital mortality increased from 1.1% in 2019, to 2.6% in 2020 (63% relative increase). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, in-hospital all-cause mortality significantly increased in patients admitted for cardiological PIP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(11 Suppl 1): 45S-47S, 2020 11.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to deferral of many non-urgent procedures in most healthcare systems worldwide. With this study we aimed to quantify the impact of COVID-19 on interventional treatment of structural heart disease (SHD) in Italy. METHODS: Numbers of transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR), left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO), patent foramen ovale (PFO) closures performed over a 4-week period during the national lockdown in Italian centers performing over 60 structural heart interventions (SHI)/year were compared with the same 4-week period in 2019. Incidence rate reductions (IRR) were estimated by zero-inflated negative binomial regression. RESULTS: According to our nationwide analysis, SHIs were reduced by 79% as compared to the same period in 2019 (IRR 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.29). This reduction was more substantial for PFO closure (IRR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.07), LAAO (IRR 0.11, 95% CI 0.05-0.25) and PMVR (IRR 0.12, 95% CI 0.04-0.36) as compared to TAVR (IRR 0.31, 95% CI 0.22-0.47). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a 79% drop in SHI volumes in Italy. PFO closure, LAAO and PMVR decreased more significantly as compared to TAVR. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of this reduction on outcomes of patients with SHD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Confidence Intervals , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mitral Valve/surgery , Prevalence , Time Factors , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/statistics & numerical data
12.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 6(1)2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055078

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for a global pandemic involving massive increases in the daily numbers of cases and deaths. Due to the emergency caused by the pandemic, huge efforts have been made to develop COVID-19 vaccines, the first of which were released in December 2020. Effective vaccines for COVID-19 are needed to protect the population, especially healthcare professionals and fragile individuals, such as older people or chronic-disease-affected patients. Physical exercise training generally has health benefits and assists in the prevention of several chronic diseases. Moreover, physical activity improves mental health by reducing anxiety, depression, and negative mood and improving self-esteem. Therefore, the present review aims to provide a detailed view of the literature, presenting updated evidence on the beneficial effects of adapted physical activity, based on personalized and tailor-made exercise, in preventing, treating, and counteracting the consequences of COVID-19.

13.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 5(2)2020 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038659

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced the hardest-hit populations, like Italians, to radically change their daily habits, starting with social distancing, strict preventive measures, and self-isolation. These precautions also apply to sport-related facilities and activities. The difficulty to practice physical activity during this dramatic moment in time adds to the risks associated with sedentary habits, due to staying all the time at home. Here, the importance and the benefits of maintaining exercise routine, even at home, are emphasized in order to avoid the consequences of inactivity.

14.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 6(1)2020 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011568

ABSTRACT

As of the 14th of September, Italy has been considered one of the more susceptible nations in terms of risk of increase for Sars-Cov-2 contagion [...].

15.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 96(4): 839-843, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832030

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic raised the issue to guarantee the proper level of care to patients with acute cardiovascular diseases and concomitant suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and, in the meantime safety and protection of healthcare providers. The aim of this position paper is to provide standards to healthcare facilities and healthcare providers on infection prevention and control measures during the management of suspected and confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV infection accessing in cath-lab. The document represents the view of the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology (GISE), and it is based on recommendations from the main World and European Health Organizations (WHO, and ECDC) as well as from the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiac Catheterization , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Italy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 323: 288-291, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) led to the reorganization of Cardiology Units in terms of working spaces and healthcare personnel. In this scenario, both outpatient visits and elective interventional cardiology procedures were suspended and/or postponed. We aimed to report the impact of COVID-19 on interventional coronary and structural procedures in Piedmont, Italy. METHODS: The number of coronary angiographies (CAG), percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), primary PCI (pPCI), transcatheter aortic valve replacements (TAVR) and Mitraclip performed in Piedmont between March 1st and April 20th, 2020 (CoV-time) were collected from each catheterization laboratory and compared to the number of procedures performed the year before in the same months (NoCoV-time). RESULTS: Procedural data from 18 catheterization laboratories were collected. Both coronary (5498 versus 2888: difference: -47.5%; mean 305.4 VS 160.4; p = 0.002) and structural (84 versus 17: difference: -79.8%; mean 4.7 Vs 0.9; p < 0.001) procedures decreased during CoV-time compared to NoCoV-time. In particular, coronary angiographies (1782 versus 3460), PCI (1074 versus 1983), p PCI (271 versus 410), TAVR (11 versus 72) and Mitraclip (6 versus 12) showed a reduction of 48.5%, 45.7%, 33.7%, 84.7% and 50.0%, respectively (all p for comparison <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the same time-period in 2019, both coronary and structural interventional procedures during COVID-19 epidemic suffered a dramatic decrease in Piedmont, Italy. Organizational change and structured clinical pathways should be created, together with awareness campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Angiography/statistics & numerical data , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mitral Valve/surgery , Pandemics
17.
Exp Cell Res ; 395(2): 112204, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV2, the agent responsible for the current pandemic, is also causing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), hyperinflammation and high mortality. It is critical to dissect the pathogenetic mechanisms in order to reach a targeted therapeutic approach. METHODS: In the present investigation, we evaluated the effects of SARS-CoV2 on human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). We used RNA-seq datasets available online for identifying SARS-CoV2 potential genes target on human bronchial epithelial cells. RNA expression levels and potential cellular gene pathways have been analyzed. In order to identify possible common strategies among the main pandemic viruses, such as SARS-CoV2, SARS-CoV1, MERS-CoV, and H1N1, we carried out a hypergeometric test of the main genes transcribed in the cells of the respiratory tract exposed to these viruses. RESULTS: The analysis showed that two mechanisms are highly regulated in HBEC: the innate immunity recruitment and the disassembly of cilia and cytoskeletal structure. The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CSF3) and dynein heavy chain 7, axonemal (DNAH7) represented respectively the most upregulated and downregulated genes belonging to the two mechanisms highlighted above. Furthermore, the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 7 (CEACAM7) that codifies for a surface protein is highly specific of SARS-CoV2 and not for SARS-CoV1, MERS-CoV, and H1N1, suggesting a potential role in viral entry. In order to identify potential new drugs, using a machine learning approach, we highlighted Flunisolide, Thalidomide, Lenalidomide, Desoximetasone, xylazine, and salmeterol as potential drugs against SARS-CoV2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, lung involvement and RDS could be generated by the activation and down regulation of diverse gene pathway involving respiratory cilia and muscle contraction, apoptotic phenomena, matrix destructuration, collagen deposition, neutrophil and macrophages recruitment.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Transcriptome , Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19 , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/genetics , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Drug Discovery/methods , Dyneins/genetics , Dyneins/metabolism , GPI-Linked Proteins/genetics , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/genetics , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Machine Learning , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Up-Regulation
18.
Heliyon ; 6(6): e04315, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612932

ABSTRACT

The worldwide spread of COVID-19 has upset the normality of Italian daily life, forcing population to social distancing and self-isolation. Since the containment precautions also concern sport-related activities, home workout remained the only possibility to play sports and stay active during the pandemic. The present study aimed to examine changes in the physical activity levels during self-quarantine in Italy, and the impact of exercise on psychological health. A total of 2974 Italian subjects has completed an online survey, but only 2524 subjects resulted eligible for this study. The questionnaire measured the total weekly physical activity energy expenditure before and during quarantine (i.e. the sum of walking, moderate-intensity physical activities, and vigorous-intensity physical activities) in Metabolic Equivalent Task minutes per week (MET-min/wk) using an adapted version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire and their psychological well-being using the Psychological General Well Being Index. Of the 2524 Italian subjects included in the study, 1426 were females (56.4%) and 1098 males (43.6%). Total physical activity significantly decreased between before and during COVID-19 pandemic (Mean: 2429 vs. 1577 MET-min/wk, ∗∗∗∗p < 0.0001), in all age groups and especially in men (Female, mean: 1994 vs. 1443 MET-min/wk, ∗∗∗∗p < 0.0001; Male, mean: 2998 vs. 1754 MET-min/wk, ∗∗∗∗p < 0.0001). Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found between the variation of physical activity and mental well-being (r = 0.07541, ∗∗∗p = 0.0002), suggesting that the reduction of total physical activity had a profoundly negative impact on psychological health and well-being of population. Based on this scientific evidence, maintaining a regular exercise routine is a key strategy for physical and mental health during a forced rest period like the current coronavirus emergency.

19.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 5(2)2020 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197426

ABSTRACT

In this editorial, we focused our attention on elite athletes during the COVID-19 lockdown. A high level of physical fitness is required by elite athletes irrespective of the specific type of sport. Generally speaking, elite athletes avoid long periods of rest during and at the end of the competitive season. Normally, elite athletes stop training or reduce training volume and intensity for a period that ranges from two weeks to a maximum of four weeks.

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