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1.
Medicines (Basel) ; 9(5)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875703

ABSTRACT

This study provides epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of 492 consecutive patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Saudi Arabia between March and September 2020. Data were collected from electronic case reports. The cohort was 54% male, with 20.4% aged >60 years, 19.9% aged 31-40 years, and 17% aged 41-50 years. The median incubation period was 16 days, with upper and lower 95% quartiles of 27 and 10 days, respectively. Most patients (79.2%) were symptomatic. Variables significantly different between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients were age, blood oxygen saturation percentage, hemoglobin level, lymphocyte count, neutrophil to lymphocyte (NTL) ratio, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level. Asymptomatic patients were mostly younger, with lower body mass index and ALT and AST levels but higher lymphocyte counts, NTL ratio, and CD4, CD8, natural killer cell, IgG, and IgM levels. Factors associated with increased risk of mortality were age (>42 years) and comorbidities, particularly diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Patients who were not given an antiviral regimen were associated with better prognosis than patients who received an antiviral regimen (HR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.011-0.25). These findings will help clinicians and policymakers adopt best management and treatment options for SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305259

ABSTRACT

Despite the effectiveness of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, the delta (B.1.617.2) variant of concern (VOC) has spread globally, and breakthrough infections have been reported. We identified the circulating variants and effectiveness of those vaccines between April and June 2021 at a tertiary-care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Among 320 patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mean age, 39 years;53.6% male), 70.6% received a one-dose vaccination;15.1% received two-dose vaccinations;14. 3% were unvaccinated;64.9% received Oxford-AstraZeneca;and 32.5% received Pfizer-BioNTech. Most breakthrough cases involving VOCs (71%) occurred among patients who received a one-dose Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccination, and most patients with breakthrough disease were infected with the delta variant. Among all VOCs and non-VOCS, the delta variant was most frequently detected and was associated with young age (20–49 years), males, symptoms, and low cycle threshold value. These findings indicate an increased rate of transmission for the delta variant in this cohort.

3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(12): 1782-1791, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636074

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In December 2019, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, emerged in China, causing coronavirus disease 2019. The present study investigated genetic profiles and variations of SARS-CoV-2 distributed in different regions of Saudi Arabia to begin to understand the pathogenesis and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in this country and analyzed associations of these variations with host factors. METHODOLOGY: In total, 774 SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences obtained and annotated by the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) were captured and analyzed. RESULTS: The most common SARS-CoV-2 clades in Saudi Arabia were GH followed by O, GR, G, and S. Statistically significant associations were detected between clades and patient outcome. Age, as a host factor, was significantly associated with many variables, including virus geographical location, clade, and patient outcome. The most common variants detected were the NSP12_P323L mutation 94.9%, followed by the D614G mutation (76%) and the NS3_Q57H mutation (71.4%). The concerned variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 were not detected in our population. D614G was associated with higher morbidities than the wild-type virus, including higher rates of death and hospitalization. The NS3_Q57H mutation was the only variant associated with better patient outcome than the wild type. Risk of death was highest with the NSP12_P323L mutation (OR = 1.84; 95% CI = 0.37-9.30) and lowest with the NS3_Q57H mutation (OR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.25-0.727). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 has evolved uniquely and independently in Saudi Arabia. Our findings provide evidence to begin linking the evolutionary implications to host factors and their effects on the virus severity and transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Genome, Viral , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation/genetics , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Whole Genome Sequencing
4.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1139-1143, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One major challenge for detecting the virus that causes COVID-19 is commercial SARS-CoV-2 testing kit or reagent availability. To allow every laboratory or hospital access to an in-house assay, we developed a low-cost SARS-CoV-2 detection assay protocol using in-house primers and reagents/equipment on hand in most biology or diagnostic laboratories: a SYBR Green-based RT-PCR. RNA extraction has also become a major bottleneck due to limited supplies and the required labor. Thus, we validated an alternative RNA extraction protocol. METHODS: We designed and synthesized in-house primers according to SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences retrieved from GISAID database. One hundred and ninety patient samples were collected by nasopharyngeal swab, coded, and used to develop and validate the assay protocol. RNA extraction was performed using TRI reagent-based RNA protocol to inactivate the virus; thus, testing was conducted in a conventional biosafety level 2 laboratory. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of the primers were evaluated using 190 patient samples previously tested for SARS-CoV-2. The positive amplicons were sequenced to confirm the results. The assay protocol was developed, and the specificity of each RT-PCR product was confirmed using melting curve analyses. Of 190 samples, the SYBR Green-based RT-PCR assay detected SARS-CoV-2 target genes in 88 samples, with no false-positive results. These findings indicate that the sensitivity of our assay was 97.7% and specificity of 100% with those of the diagnostic laboratory that tested the same samples using a Rotor-Gene PCR cycler with an Altona Diagnostics SARS-CoV-2 kit (R2 = 0.89). CONCLUSIONS: These approaches are reliable, repeatable, specific, sensitive, simple, and low-cost tools for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in a conventional biosafety level 2 laboratory, offering alternative approaches when commercial kits are unavailable or not affordable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Laboratories , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(5)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121790

ABSTRACT

Combating the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic demands accurate, rapid, and point-of-care testing with fast results to triage cases for isolation and treatment. The current testing relies on reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), which is routinely performed in well-equipped laboratories by trained professionals at specific locations. However, during busy periods, high numbers of samples queued for testing can delay the test results, impacting efforts to reduce the infection risk. Besides, the absence of well-established laboratories at remote sites and low-resourced environments can contribute to a silent spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). These reasons compel the need to accommodate point-of-care testing for COVID-19 that meets the ASSURED criteria (affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid and robust, equipment-free, and deliverable). This study assessed the agreement and accuracy of the portable Biomeme SARS-CoV-2 system against the gold standard tests. Nasopharyngeal and nasal swabs were used. Of the 192 samples tested using the Biomeme SARS-CoV-2 system, the results from 189 samples (98.4%) were in agreement with the reference standard-of-care RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2. The portable system generated simultaneous results for nine samples in 80 min with high positive and negative percent agreements of 99.0% and 97.8%, respectively. We performed separate testing in a sealed glove box, offering complete biosafety containment. Thus, the Biomeme SARS-CoV-2 system can help decentralize COVID-19 testing and offer rapid test results for patients in remote and low-resourced settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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