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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309966

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 mortality rate has not been formally assessed in Nigeria. We therefore aimed to address this gap and identify associated mortality risk factors during the first and second waves in Nigeria.Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the national surveillance database between February 27, 2020, and April 3, 2021. The outcome was deaths amongst persons with a laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19. Incidence rates of COVID-19 death per 100,000 person-days were estimated. Adjusted negative binomial regression was used to identify factors associated with COVID-19 death, and presented as adjusted Incidence Rate Ratios (aIRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The first wave included 65,790 COVID-19 patients, of whom 994 (1∙51%) died;the second wave included 91,089 patients, of whom 513 (0∙56%) died. The incidence rate of deaths related to COVID-19 was higher in the first wave [54∙25 (95% CI: 50∙98-57∙73)] than in the second wave [19∙19 (17∙60-20∙93)]. Factors independently associated with increased risk of death in both waves were: age ≥45 years, male gender [first wave aIRR 1∙65 (1∙35-2∙02) and second wave 1∙52 (1∙11-2∙06)], being symptomatic [aIRR 3∙17 (2∙59-3∙89) and 3∙04 (2∙20-4∙21)], and being hospitalised [aIRR 4∙19 (3∙26-5∙39) and 7∙84 (4∙90-12∙54)].Interpretation: The incidence rate of COVID-19 death in Nigeria was higher in the first wave, suggesting improved public health response and care during the second wave. Regional mortality differences suggest that policy makers focus on regional equity in access to testing and quality of care to mitigate the impact of another COVID-19 wave in Nigeria.Funding: None to declare. Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: Ethical approval for the study was given by the Nigeria National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC/01/01/2007-22/06/2020).

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318429

ABSTRACT

Background: The current pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown epidemiological and clinical characteristics that appear worsened in hypertensive patients. The morbidity and mortality of the disease among hypertensive patients in Africa have yet to be well described. Methods: : In this retrospective cohort study all confirmed COVID-19 adult patients (≥18 years of age) in Lagos between February 27 to July 6 2020 were included. Demographic, clinical and outcome data were extracted from electronic medical records of patients admitted at the COVID-19 isolation centers in Lagos. Outcomes included dying, being discharged after recovery or being evacuated/transferred. Descriptive statistics considered proportions, means and medians. The Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used in determining associations between variables. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were performed to quantify the risk of worse outcomes among hypertensives with COVID-19 and adjust for confounders. P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: : A total of 2075 adults with COVID-19 were included in this study. The prevalence of hypertension, the most common comorbidity, was 17.8% followed by diabetes (7.2%) and asthma (2.0%). Overall mortality was 4.2% while mortality among the hypertensives was 13.7%. Severe symptoms and mortality were significantly higher among the hypertensives and survival rates were significantly lowered by the presence of an additional comorbidity to 50% from 91% for those with hypertension alone and from 98% for all other patients (P<0.001). After adjustment for confounders (age and sex), severe COVID-19and death were higher for hypertensives {severe/critical illness: HR=2.41, P=0.001, 95%CI=1.4–4.0, death: HR=2.30, P=0.001, 95%CI=1.2–4.6, for those with hypertension only} {severe/critical illness: HR=3.76, P=0.001, 95%CI=2.1–6.4, death: crude HR=6.63, P=0.001, 95%CI=3.4–1.6, for those with additional comorbidities}. Hypertension posed an increased risk of severe morbidity (approx. 4-fold) and death (approx. 7-fold) from COVID-19 in the presence of multiple comorbidities. Conclusion: The potential morbidity and mortality risks of hypertension especially with other comorbidities in COVID-19 could help direct efforts towards prevention and prognostication. This provides the rationale for improving preventive caution for people with hypertension and other comorbidities and prioritizing them for future antiviral interventions.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049699, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop and validate a symptom prediction tool for COVID-19 test positivity in Nigeria. DESIGN: Predictive modelling study. SETTING: All Nigeria States and the Federal Capital Territory. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 43 221 individuals within the national COVID-19 surveillance dataset from 27 February to 27 August 2020. Complete dataset was randomly split into two equal halves: derivation and validation datasets. Using the derivation dataset (n=21 477), backward multivariable logistic regression approach was used to identify symptoms positively associated with COVID-19 positivity (by real-time PCR) in children (≤17 years), adults (18-64 years) and elderly (≥65 years) patients separately. OUTCOME MEASURES: Weighted statistical and clinical scores based on beta regression coefficients and clinicians' judgements, respectively. Using the validation dataset (n=21 744), area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values were used to assess the predictive capacity of individual symptoms, unweighted score and the two weighted scores. RESULTS: Overall, 27.6% of children (4415/15 988), 34.6% of adults (9154/26 441) and 40.0% of elderly (317/792) that had been tested were positive for COVID-19. Best individual symptom predictor of COVID-19 positivity was loss of smell in children (AUROC 0.56, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.56), either fever or cough in adults (AUROC 0.57, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.58) and difficulty in breathing in the elderly (AUROC 0.53, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.58) patients. In children, adults and the elderly patients, all scoring approaches showed similar predictive performance. CONCLUSIONS: The predictive capacity of various symptom scores for COVID-19 positivity was poor overall. However, the findings could serve as an advocacy tool for more investments in resources for capacity strengthening of molecular testing for COVID-19 in Nigeria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Cohort Studies , Humans , Nigeria , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 26, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown epidemiological and clinical characteristics that appear worsened in hypertensive patients. The morbidity and mortality of the disease among hypertensive patients in Africa have yet to be well described. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study all confirmed COVID-19 adult patients (≥18 years of age) in Lagos between February 27 to July 62,020 were included. Demographic, clinical and outcome data were extracted from electronic medical records of patients admitted at the COVID-19 isolation centers in Lagos. Outcomes included dying, being discharged after recovery or being evacuated/transferred. Descriptive statistics considered proportions, means and medians. The Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used in determining associations between variables. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were performed to quantify the risk of worse outcomes among hypertensives with COVID-19 and adjust for confounders. P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 2075 adults with COVID-19 were included in this study. The prevalence of hypertension, the most common comorbidity, was 17.8% followed by diabetes (7.2%) and asthma (2.0%). Overall mortality was 4.2% while mortality among the hypertensives was 13.7%. Severe symptoms and mortality were significantly higher among the hypertensives and survival rates were significantly lowered by the presence of additional comorbidity to 50% from 91% for those with hypertension alone and from 98% for all other patients (P < 0.001). After adjustment for confounders (age and sex), severe COVID-19and death were higher for hypertensives {severe/critical illness: HR = 2.41, P = 0.001, 95%CI = 1.4-4.0, death: HR = 2.30, P = 0.001, 95%CI = 1.2-4.6, for those with hypertension only} {severe/critical illness: HR = 3.76, P = 0.001, 95%CI = 2.1-6.4, death: crude HR = 6.63, P = 0.001, 95%CI = 3.4-1.6, for those with additional comorbidities}. Hypertension posed an increased risk of severe morbidity (approx. 4-fold) and death (approx. 7-fold) from COVID-19 in the presence of multiple comorbidities. CONCLUSION: The potential morbidity and mortality risks of hypertension especially with other comorbidities in COVID-19 could help direct efforts towards prevention and prognostication. This provides the rationale for improving preventive caution for people with hypertension and other comorbidities and prioritizing them for future antiviral interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Global Health ; 17(1): 79, 2021 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lagos state is the industrial nerve centre of Nigeria and was the epicentre of the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Nigeria as it is now for the current Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) outbreak. This paper describes how the lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak in 2014 informed the emergency preparedness of the State ahead of the COVID-19 outbreak and guided response. DISCUSSION: Following the Ebola outbreak in 2014, the Lagos State government provided governance by developing a policy on emergency preparedness and biosecurity and provided oversight and coordination of emergency preparedness strategies. Capacities for emergency response were strengthened by training key staff, developing a robust surveillance system, and setting up a Biosafety Level 3 laboratory and biobank. Resource provision, in terms of finances and trained personnel for emergencies was prioritized by the government. With the onset of COVID-19, Lagos state was able to respond promptly to the outbreak using the centralized Incident Command Structure and the key activities of the Emergency Operations Centre. Contributory to effective response were partnerships with the private sectors, community engagement and political commitment. CONCLUSION: Using the lessons learned from the 2014 Ebola outbreak, Lagos State had gradually prepared its healthcare system for a pandemic such as COVID-19. The State needs to continue to expand its preparedness to be more resilient and future proof to respond to disease outbreaks. Looking beyond intra-state gains, lessons and identified best practices from the past and present should be shared with other states and countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology
7.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; 16: 100284, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275152

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prior research has highlighted the psychosocial impact of infectious diseases on individuals and the community at large. However, little is known about the psychosocial implications of COVID-19. This study set out to determine the rate as well as correlates of anxiety and depressive symptoms among persons managed as in-patients for COVID-19 in Lagos, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an online survey between April to June ending 2020 using a consecutive sampling technique of persons positive for COVID-19 and who were managed as in-patients across five (5) treatment centres in Lagos, Nigeria. The survey collected information on demographic as well as clinical data including suicidality. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: There were one hundred and sixty participants in total. The mean age of respondents was 36.4 (±9.7) years with a higher proportion (56.9%) being males. With regards to diagnosis, 28.1% and 27.5% of the respondents were categorised as probable cases of depression and anxiety respectively, while 3.8% respondents reported suicidal ideation. Majority of the respondents (61.9%) reported the fear of infecting their loved ones. The variables that showed association with psychiatric morbidity were a past history of an emotional concern, employment status, guilt about infecting others and boredom. CONCLUSION: This study revealed a high burden of psychological/psychiatric morbidity among persons treated for COVID-19, particularly persons who have had prior emotional concerns. The findings from this study reiterate the need to pay attention to the mental health of people during disease outbreaks and to incorporate psychosocial interventions as part of the management package.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248281, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the comorbidities that result in negative outcomes for people with COVID-19 are currently scarce for African populations. This study identifies comorbidities that predict death among a large sample of COVID-19 patients from Nigeria. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of medical records for 2184 laboratory confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Lagos, southwest Nigeria. Extracted data included age, sex, severity of condition at presentation and self-reported comorbidities. The outcomes of interest were death or discharge from facility. RESULTS: Most of the cases were male (65.8%) and the median age was 43 years (IQR: 33-55). Four hundred and ninety-two patients (22.5%) had at least one comorbidity and the most common amongst them were hypertension (74.2%) and diabetes (30.3%). The mortality rate was 3.3% and a significantly higher proportion of patients with comorbidities died compared to those with none. The comorbidities that predicted death were hypertension (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.22-4.01), diabetes (OR: 3.69, 95% CI: 1.99-6.85), renal disease (OR: 12.53, 95%CI: 1.97-79.56), cancer (OR: 14.12, 95% CI: 2.03-98.19) and HIV (OR: 1.77-84.15]. CONCLUSION: Comorbidities are prevalent and the associated risk of death is high among COVID-19 patients in Lagos, Nigeria. Public enlightenment, early identification and targeted care for COVID-19 cases with comorbidities are recommended as the pandemic evolves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
9.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(3): e21242, 2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, continues to impact health systems throughout the world with serious medical challenges being imposed on many African countries like Nigeria. Although emerging studies have identified lymphopenia as a driver of cytokine storm, disease progression, and poor outcomes in infected patients, its immunopathogenesis, as well as environmental and genetic determinants, remain unclear. Understanding the interplay of these determinants in the context of lymphopenia and COVID-19 complications in patients in Africa may help with risk stratification and appropriate deployment of targeted treatment regimens with repurposed drugs to improve prognosis. OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to investigate the role of vitamin D status, vasculopathy, apoptotic pathways, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms in the immunopathogenesis of lymphopenia among African people infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This cross-sectional study will enroll 230 participants, categorized as "SARS-CoV-2 negative" (n=69), "COVID-19 mild" (n=32), "hospitalized" (n=92), and "recovered" (n=37), from two health facilities in Lagos, Nigeria. Sociodemographic data, travel history, and information on comorbidities will be obtained from case files and through a pretested, interview-based structured questionnaire. Venous blood samples (5 mL) collected between 8 AM and 10 AM and aliquoted into EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and plain tubes will be used for complete blood count and CD4 T cell assays to determine lymphopenia (lymphocyte count <1000 cells/µL) and CD4 T lymphocyte levels, as well as to measure the concentrations of vitamin D, caspase 3, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) using an autoanalyzer, flow cytometry, and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) techniques. Genomic DNA will be extracted from the buffy coat and used as a template for the amplification of apoptosis-related genes (Bax, Bcl-2, BCL2L12) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping of VDR (Apa1, Fok1, and Bsm1) gene polymorphisms by the PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism method and capillary sequencing. Total RNA will also be extracted, reverse transcribed, and subsequently quantitated by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) to monitor the expression of apoptosis genes in the four participant categories. Data analyses, which include a test of association between VDR gene polymorphisms and study outcomes (lymphopenia and hypovitaminosis D prevalence, mild/moderate and severe infections) will be performed using the R statistical software. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium analyses for the alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes of the genotyped VDR gene will also be carried out. RESULTS: A total of 45 participants comprising 37 SARS-CoV-2-negative and 8 COVID-19-recovered individuals have been enrolled so far. Their complete blood counts and CD4 T lymphocyte counts have been determined, and their serum samples and genomic DNA and RNA samples have been extracted and stored at -20 °C until further analyses. Other expected outcomes include the prevalence and distribution of lymphopenia and hypovitaminosis D in the control (SARS-CoV-2 negative), confirmed, hospitalized, and recovered SARS-CoV-2-positive participants; association of lymphopenia with CD4 T lymphocyte level, serum vitamin D, sVCAM-1, sFasL, and caspase 3 levels in hospitalized patients with COVID-19; expression levels of apoptosis-related genes among hospitalized participants with COVID-19, and those with lymphopenia compared to those without lymphopenia; and frequency distribution of the alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes of VDR gene polymorphisms in COVID-19-infected participants. CONCLUSIONS: This study will aid in the genotypic and phenotypic stratification of COVID-19-infected patients in Nigeria with and without lymphopenia to enable biomarker discovery and pave the way for the appropriate and timely deployment of patient-centered treatments to improve prognosis. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/21242.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246637, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063224

ABSTRACT

A key element in containing the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 infection is quality diagnostics which is affected by several factors. We now report the comparative performance of five real-time diagnostic assays. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from persons seeking a diagnosis for SARS-CoV-2 infection in Lagos, Nigeria. The comparison was performed on the same negative, low, and high-positive sample set, with viral RNA extracted using the Qiagen Viral RNA Kit. All five assays are one-step reverse transcriptase real-time PCR assays. Testing was done according to each assay's manufacturer instructions for use using real-time PCR platforms. 63 samples were tested using the five qPCR assays, comprising of 15 negative samples, 15 positive samples (Ct = 16-30; one Ct = 35), and 33 samples with Tib MolBiol E-gene Ct value ranging from 36-41. All assays detected all high positive samples correctly. Three assays correctly identified all negative samples while two assays each failed to correctly identify one different negative sample. The consistent detection of positive samples at different Ct/Cq values gives an indication of when to repeat testing and/or establish more stringent in-house cut-off value. The varied performance of different diagnostic assays, mostly with emergency use approvals, for a novel virus is expected. Comparative assays' performance reported may guide laboratories to determine both their repeat testing Ct/Cq range and/or cut-off value.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 226-232, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059991

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Lagos state remains the epicentre of COVID-19 in Nigeria. We describe the symptoms and signs of the first 2,184 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted at COVID-19 treatment centers in Lagos State. We also assessed the relationship between patients' presenting symptoms, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and COVID-19 deaths.. METHODS: Medical records of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients were extracted and analyzed for their symptoms, symptom severity, presence of comorbidities and outcome. RESULTS: The ages of the patients ranged from 4 days to 98 years with a mean of 43.0(16.0) years. Of the patients who presented with symptoms, cough (19.3%) was the most common presenting symptom. This was followed by fever (13.7%) and difficulty in breathing, (10.9%). The most significant clinical predictor of death was the severity of symptoms and signs at presentation. Difficulty in breathing was the most significant symptom predictor of COVID-19 death (OR:19.26 95% CI 10.95-33.88). The case fatality rate was 4.3%. CONCLUSION: Primary care physicians and COVID-19 frontline workers should maintain a high index of suspicion and prioritize the care of patients presenting with these symptoms. Community members should be educated on such predictors and ensure that patients with these symptoms seek care early to reduce the risk of deaths associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 113(3): 301-306, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988462

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving global situation, infecting over 25 million people and causing more than 850,000 deaths. Several signs and symptoms have been described to be characteristic of the disease. However, there is a dearth of report on the description of the clinical characteristics of the disease in patients from Nigeria. This study was designed to provide a description of the clinical and demographic characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Nigeria. METHODS: This study is a case series that includes patients that are evaluated between May and August 2020, and diagnosed with COVID-19. Patient health records were reviewed and evaluated to describe the clinical characteristics on presentation. RESULTS: A total of 154 COVID-19 patients were included in this study, with a mean age (S.D.) of 46.16 (13.701). Most of the patients survived (mortality rate of 2.6%), and were symptomatic (89.6%). There were more males (74.7%) than females, and the most common symptoms were fever, breathing difficulty, dry cough and malaise. Co-morbidities were also present in almost half of the study participants (49.4%). CONCLUSION: This study presents the most extensive description, to date, on the clinical and demographic characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Nigeria. Males are more likely than females to be infected with COVID-19 and the most occurring symptoms are fever, breathing difficulty, malaise, dry cough and chest pain. Old age and the presence of co-morbidities may also be associated with developing the severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Demography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
13.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(4): 285-292, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914656

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The clinical spectrum of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still evolving. This study describes the clinical characteristics and investigates factors that predict symptomatic presentation and duration of hospitalisation in a cohort of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients managed in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective assessment of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 disease in six dedicated facilities in Lagos, Nigeria, between April 1st and May 31st 2020. Participants were individuals with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The outcome measures were presence of symptoms and duration of hospitalisation. Demographic and comorbidity data were also obtained. Statistical analysis was done using STATA 15.0 software, with P < 0.05 being considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 632 cases were analysed. The median age was 40 years (IQR: 30.5-49); male patients accounted for 60.1%. About 63% of patients were asymptomatic at presentation. Among the symptomatic, the most common symptoms were cough (47.4%) and fever (39.7%). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (16.8%) and diabetes (5.2%). The median duration of hospitalisation was 10 days (IQR: 8-14). Comorbidities increased the odds of presenting with symptoms 1.6-fold (P = 0.025) for one comorbidity and 3.2-fold (P = 0.005) for ≥2 comorbidities. Individuals aged ≥50 years were twice as likely to be hospitalised for more than 14 days compared to individuals aged <50 years (P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Most individuals had no symptoms with comorbidities increasing the likelihood of symptoms. Older age was associated with longer duration of hospitalisation. Age and comorbidities should be used for COVID-19 triaging for efficient resource allocation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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