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J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125856, 2021 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193388


Inhalation of aerosols such as pharmaceutical aerosols or virus aerosol uptake is of great concern to the human population. To elucidate the underlying aerosol dynamics, the deposition fractions (DFs) of aerosols in healthy and asthmatic human airways of generations 13-15 are predicted. The Navier-stokes equations governing the gaseous phase and the discrete phase model for particles' motion are solved using numerical methods. The main forces responsible for deposition are inertial impaction forces and complex secondary flow velocities. The curvatures and sinusoidal folds in the asthmatic geometry lead to the formation of complex secondary flows and hence higher DFs. The intensities of complex secondary flows are strongest at the generations affected by asthma. The DF in the healthy airways is 0%, and it ranges from 1.69% to 52.93% in the asthmatic ones. From this study, the effects of the pharmaceutical aerosol particle diameters in the treatment of asthma patients can be established, which is conducive to inhibiting the inflammation of asthma airways. Furthermore, with the recent development of COVID-19 which causes pneumonia, the predicted physics and effective simulation methods of bioaerosols delivery to asthma patients are vital to prevent the exacerbation of the chronic ailment and the epidemic.

Asthma , COVID-19 , Aerosols , Asthma/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Humans , Lung , Models, Biological , Particle Size , SARS-CoV-2
Environ Res ; 197: 111096, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163738


This study is motivated by the amplified transmission rates of the SAR-CoV-2 virus in areas with high concentrations of fine particulates (PM2.5) as reported in northern Italy and Mexico. To develop a deeper understanding of the contribution of PM2.5 in the propagation of the SAR-CoV-2 virus in the population, the deposition patterns and efficiencies (DEs) of PM2.5 laced with the virus in healthy and asthmatic airways are studied. Physiologically correct 3-D models for generations 10-12 of the human airways are applied to carry out a numerical analysis of two-phase flow for full breathing cycles. Two concentrations of PM2.5 are applied for the simulation, i.e., 30 µg⋅m-3 and 80 µg⋅m-3 for three breathing statuses, i.e., rest, light exercise, and moderate activity. All the PM2.5 injected into the control volume is assumed to be 100% contaminated with the SAR-CoV-2 virus. Skewed air-flow phenomena at the bifurcations are proportional to the Reynolds number at the inlet, and their intensity in the asthmatic airway exceeded that of the healthy one. Upon exhalation, two peak air-flow vectors from daughter branches combine to form one big vector in the parent generation. Asthmatic airway models has higher deposition efficiencies (DEs) for contaminated PM2.5 as compared to the healthy one. Higher DEs arise in the asthmatic airway model due to complex secondary flows which increase the impaction of contaminated PM2.5 on airways' walls.

Asthma , Lung , Computer Simulation , Humans , Italy , Mexico , Models, Biological , Particulate Matter/toxicity
Environ Res ; 197: 110975, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118425


The deposition phenomenon of microparticle and SAR-CoV-2 laced bioaerosol in human airways is studied by Taguchi methods and response surface methodology (RSM). The data used herein is obtained from simulations of airflow dynamics and deposition fractions of drug particle aerosols in the downstream airways of asthma patients using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete particle motion (DPM). Three main parameters, including airflow rate, drug dose, and particle size, affecting aerosol deposition in the lungs of asthma patients are examined. The highest deposition fraction (DF) is obtained at the flow rate of 45 L min-1, the drug dose of 200 µg·puff-1, and the particle diameter of 5 µm. The optimized combination of levels for the three parameters for maximum drug deposition is performed via the Taguchi method. The importance of the influencing factors rank as particle size > drug dose > flow rate. RSM reveals that the combination of 30 L min-1, 5 µm, 200 µg·puff- has the highest deposition fraction. In part, this research also studied the deposition of bioaerosols contaminated with the SAR-CoV-2 virus, and their lowest DF is 1.15%. The low DF of bioaerosols reduces the probability of the SAR-CoV-2 virus transmission.

Hydrodynamics , Lung , Administration, Inhalation , Aerosols , Computer Simulation , Humans , Models, Biological , Particle Size
Aerosol and Air Quality Research ; 20(6):1172-1196, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-601230


Determining the hotspots and deposition efficiencies (DEs) for aerosols in human airways is important for both research and medical purposes. The complexity of the human airways and the breathing process limit the application of in vitro measurements to only two consecutive branches of the human airway. Herein, in-depth information on in vitro experiments and state-of-the-art review on various computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications and finite element methods on airflow and aerosol motion in both healthy and obstructed human airways are provided. A brief introduction of the application of one-dimensional and two-dimensional mathematical models to investigate airflow and particle motion in the lungs are further discussed. As evident in this review, aerosol deposition in the upper and central human airway regions has been extensively studied under different inhalation statuses and conditions such as humidity as well as different aerosol sizes, shapes, and properties. However, there is little literature on the lower sections of the human airways. Herein, a detailed review of the fundamentals for both in vitro experiments and numerical simulation at different sections of human airways is done. Exceptional features and essential developments in numerical methods for aerosol motion in healthy and diseased human airways are also discussed. Challenges and limitations associated with the applications of in vitro experiments and CFD methods on both human-specific and idealized models are highlighted. The possibility of airborne transmission pathways for COVID-19 has been discussed. Overall, this review provides the most useful approach for carrying out two-phase flow investigations at different sections of the human lungs and under different inhalation statuses. Additionally, new research gaps that have developed recently on the role of bioaerosols motion in COVID-19 transmission, as well as the deposition of aerosols in impaired human airways due to coronavirus (COVID-19) are underlined.