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1.
Bioanalytical Reviews ; 4:45-71, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2128506

ABSTRACT

Interest in the use of GC-IMS for the detection of volatiles has seen a rapid expansion over the last decade. The following chapter will focus on classical GC-IMS and its research applications in the potential for diagnosis, rapid testing and biomarker discovery, with an emphasis on breath testing. Breath analysis via GC-IMS has enormous potential in many clinical areas including screening for pulmonary diseases, infections and toxins. Due to the technology's small footprint, robustness in various environments and ease of use, there have been many studies looking at its potential utility in the clinical field, including its use as a screening tool for SARS-CoV-2 infections. There remain limitations to the device usage and data processing which are discussed throughout the chapter. An introduction to its fundamentals, standardisation, breath collection methods and active areas of research and development will be covered. Copyright © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6053, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062210

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 became the globally dominant variant in early 2022. A sub-lineage of the Omicron variant (BA.2) was identified in England in January 2022. Here, we investigated hospitalisation and mortality risks of COVID-19 cases with the Omicron sub-lineage BA.2 (n = 258,875) compared to BA.1 (n = 984,337) in a large cohort study in England. We estimated the risk of hospital attendance, hospital admission or death using multivariable stratified proportional hazards regression models. After adjustment for confounders, BA.2 cases had lower or similar risks of death (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.71-0.90), hospital admission (HR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.94) and any hospital attendance (HR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.01). These findings that the risk of severe outcomes following infection with BA.2 SARS-CoV-2 was slightly lower or equivalent to the BA.1 sub-lineage can inform public health strategies in countries where BA.2 is spreading.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Virus Evolution ; 8(veac080), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2051563

ABSTRACT

The first SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) to be designated was lineage B.1.1.7, later labelled by the World Health Organization as Alpha. Originating in early autumn but discovered in December 2020, it spread rapidly and caused large waves of infections worldwide. The Alpha variant is notable for being defined by a long ancestral phylogenetic branch with an increased evolutionary rate, along which only two sequences have been sampled. Alpha genomes comprise a well-supported monophyletic clade within which the evolutionary rate is typical of SARS-CoV-2. The Alpha epidemic continued to grow despite the continued restrictions on social mixing across the UK and the imposition of new restrictions, in particular, the English national lockdown in November 2020. While these interventions succeeded in reducing the absolute number of cases, the impact of these non-pharmaceutical interventions was predominantly to drive the decline of the SARS-CoV-2 lineages that preceded Alpha. We investigate the only two sampled sequences that fall on the branch ancestral to Alpha. We find that one is likely to be a true intermediate sequence, providing information about the order of mutational events that led to Alpha. We explore alternate hypotheses that can explain how Alpha acquired a large number of mutations yet remained largely unobserved in a region of high genomic surveillance: an under-sampled geographical location, a non-human animal population, or a chronically infected individual. We conclude that the latter provides the best explanation of the observed behaviour and dynamics of the variant, although the individual need not be immunocompromised, as persistently infected immunocompetent hosts also display a higher within-host rate of evolution. Finally, we compare the ancestral branches and mutation profiles of other VOCs and find that Delta appears to be an outlier both in terms of the genomic locations of its defining mutations and a lack of the rapid evolutionary rate on its ancestral branch. As new variants, such as Omicron, continue to evolve (potentially through similar mechanisms), it remains important to investigate the origins of other variants to identify ways to potentially disrupt their evolution and emergence.

4.
National Technical Information Service; 2020.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service | ID: grc-753590

ABSTRACT

Reported cases of mumps infection in the United States (U.S.) have dropped since the introduction of the single-component mumps vaccine in 1967. After introduction of the multi-component measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine, cases in the U.S. and worldwide fell to the point where the International Task Force for Disease Eradication identified mumps for eventual global eradication. By 1991, all military recruits received an MMR vaccine. By 2010, the Department of Defense (DoD) had adopted a policy of immunizing recruits with MMR vaccine only if their antibody titers to measles or rubella had dropped below threshold levels established by the commercial testing laboratories as indicative of immunity. As part of a 2010 Defense Health Board (DHB) review of MMR immunization practices by the Department of the Navy, the DHB recommended that the Navy continue the practice of MMR immunization based on serosurveillance, but that universal MMR vaccination be re-instituted in the event of an increased risk of a mumps outbreak.

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