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Front Immunol ; 13: 846605, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798935


Cigarette smoking is reported in about one third of adults worldwide. A strong relationship between cigarette smoke exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as lung cancer has been proven. However, about 15% of lung cancer cases, and between one fourth and one third of COPD cases, occur in never-smokers. The effects of cigarette smoke on the innate as well as the adaptive immune system have been widely investigated. It is assumed that certain immunologic features contribute to lung cancer and COPD development in the absence of smoking as the major risk factor. In this article, we review different immunological aspects of lung cancer and COPD with a special focus on non-smoking related risk factors.

Cigarette Smoking , Lung Neoplasms , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , Causality , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Risk Factors , Tobacco
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 172(3-4): 84-89, 2022 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353705


The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that arose in 2019 causes a wide spectrum of symptoms and different courses of disease. Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and soft tissue emphysema are rare complications in patients with pulmonary involvement. They are the sequelae of severe, virus-induced structural changes of the pulmonary architecture. High pressure artificial ventilation aggravates the problem. Hence pneumothorax and ectopic air in soft tissues are indicators of extensive pulmonary damage. Therefore, efforts should be made to treat even very small or multiply recurrent pneumothorax by drainage procedures.

COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Subcutaneous Emphysema , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/therapy