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1.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(2): 274-286, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566302

ABSTRACT

Based on the recent reports, cardiovascular events encompass a large portion of the mortality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which drawn cardiologists into the management of the admitted ill patients. Given that common laboratory values may provide key insights into the illness caused by the life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 virus, it would be more helpful for screening, clinical management and on-time therapeutic strategies. Commensurate with these issues, this review article aimed to discuss the dynamic changes of the common laboratory parameters during COVID-19 and their association with cardiovascular diseases. Besides, the values that changed in the early stage of the disease were considered and monitored during the recovery process. The time required for returning biomarkers to basal levels was also discussed. Finally, of particular interest, we tended to abridge the latest updates regarding the cardiovascular biomarkers as prognostic and diagnostic criteria to determine the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
2.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(12): 8221-8225, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525563

ABSTRACT

Arglabin (l(R),10(S)-epoxy-5(S),5(S),7(S)-guaia-3(4),ll(13)-dien-6,12-olide), is a natural sesquiterpene γ-lactone which was first isolated from Artemisia glabella. The compound has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of the NLR Family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and production of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-18. A more hydrophilic derivative of the compound also exhibited antitumor activity in the breast, colon, ovarian, and lung cancer. Some other synthetic derivatives of the compound have also been synthesized with antitumor, cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Since both NLRP3 inflammasome and cytokine storm are associated with the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and its lethality, compounds like arglabin might have therapeutic potential to attenuate the inflammasome-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome and/or the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Artemisia , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines , Humans , Inflammasomes/drug effects , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/drug effects , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt B): 108257, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466420

ABSTRACT

Recently, the medications used for the severe form of the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) therapy are of particular interest. In this sense, it has been supposed that anti-VEGF compounds would be good candidates in the face of "cytokine storm" and intussuscepted angiogenesis due to having an appreciable anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, they can be subjected to therapeutic protocols to manage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since the compelling evidence emphasized that VEGFs contribute to the inflammatory process and play a mainstay role in disease pathogenesis, in this review, we aimed to highlight the VEGF's plausible participation in the cytokine storm exacerbation in COVID-19. Next, the recent clinical advances regarding the anti-VEGF medications, including humanized monoclonal antibody, immunosuppressant, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and a cytokine inhibitor, have been addressed in the setting of COVID-19 treatment in critically ill patients. Together, retrieving the increased level of VEGF subsets, as well as antagonizing VEGF related receptors, could be helpful for the treatment of COVID-19, especially in those suffering from ARDS.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/immunology , Critical Illness , Humans , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/immunology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/immunology
4.
Arch Med Sci ; 17(2): 275-284, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145665

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of a newly identified coronavirus, the SARS-CoV-2 (alternative name 2019-nCoV), capable of jumping across species causing zoonosis with severe acute respiratory syndromes (SARS), has alerted authorities worldwide. Soon after the epidemic was first detected in the city of Wuhan in the Hubei Province of China, starting in late December 2019, the virus spread over multiple countries in different continents, being declared a pandemic by March 2020. The demographic characteristics of the infected patients suggest that age, sex, and comorbidities are predictive factors for the fatality of the infection. The mechanisms of viral entry into the human host cells seem to be in a close relationship with the mechanisms of regulating the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which may explain the pathogenesis associated with the infection. This brings new insights into the possibilities of exploiting viral entry mechanisms to limit associated complications by means of enhancing the resistance of the infected patients using methods of regulating the RAS and strategies of modulating ACE2 expression. In this perspective article we exploit the mechanisms of COVID-19 pathogenesis based on the demographic characteristics of the infected patients reported in the recent literature and explore several approaches of limiting the initial steps of viral entry and pathogenesis based on viral interactions with ACE2 and RAS. We further discuss the implications of reproductive hormones in the regulation of the RAS and investigate the premise of using endocrine therapy against COVID-19.

5.
Arch Med Res ; 51(7): 631-635, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023470

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) infection that emerged in China in December 2019 has rapidly spread to become a global pandemic. This article summarizes the potential benefits of erythropoietin (EPO) in alleviating SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis which is now called COVID-19. As with other coronavirus infection, the lethality of COVID-19 is associated with respiratory dysfunction due to overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by the host immune responses. The resulting cytokine storm leads to the development of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Erythropoietin, well known for its role in the regulation of erythropoiesis, may have protective effects against ALI/ARDS induced by viral and other pathogens. EPO exerts antiapoptotic and cytoprotective properties under various pathological conditions. With a high safety profile, EPO promotes the production of endothelial progenitor cells and reduce inflammatory processes through inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and JAK-STAT3 signaling pathways. Thus, it may be considered as a safe drug candidate for COVID-19 patients if given at the early stage of the disease. The potential effects of erythropoietin on different aspects of ALI/ARDS associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Erythropoietin/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Arch Med Res ; 51(7): 733-735, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023461

ABSTRACT

The discovery of new drugs for treating the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) or repurposing those already in use for other viral infections is possible through understanding of the viral replication cycle and pathogenicity. This article highlights the advantage of targeting one of the non-structural proteins, helicase (nsp13), over other SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Highlighting the experience gained from targeting Nsp13 in similar coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS) and known inhibitors, the article calls for research on helicase inhibitors as potential COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Enzyme Inhibitors , RNA Helicases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Methyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
8.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 882: 173288, 2020 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959742

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, many pneumonia cases with unidentified sources appeared in Wuhan, Hubei, China, with clinical symptoms like viral pneumonia. Deep sequencing analysis of samples from lower respiratory tract revealed a novel coronavirus, called 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Currently there is a rapid global spread. World Health Organization declare the disease a pandemic condition. The pathologic source of this disease was a new RNA virus from Coronaviridae family, which was named COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 entry starts with the binding of the spike glycoprotein expressed on the viral envelope to ACE2 on the alveolar surface followed by clathrin-dependent endocytosis of the SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 complex. SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells through endocytosis process, which is possibly facilitated, via a pH dependent endosomal cysteine protease cathepsins. Once inside the cells, SARS-CoV-2 exploits the endogenous transcriptional machinery of alveolar cells to replicate and spread through the entire lung. Endosomal acidic pH for SARS-CoV-2 processing and internalization is critical. After entering the cells, it possibly activates or hijack many intracellular pathways in favor of its replication. In the current opinion article, we will explain the possible involvement of unfolded protein response as a cellular stress response to the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Endoplasmic Reticulum/drug effects , Ionophores/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/cytology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Clathrin-Coated Vesicles/drug effects , Clathrin-Coated Vesicles/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endocytosis/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , Humans , Ionophores/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Unfolded Protein Response/drug effects
9.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(1): 591-595, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934013

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can present with a variety of clinical features, ranging from asymptomatic or mild respiratory symptoms to fulminant acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) depending on the host's immune responses and the extent of the associated pathologies. This implies that several measures need to be taken to limit severely impairing symptoms caused by viral-induced pathology in vital organs. Opioids are most exploited for their analgesic effects but their usage in the palliation of dyspnoea, immunomodulation and lysosomotropism may represent potential usages of opioids in COVID-19. Here, we describe the mechanisms involved in each of these potential usages, highlighting the benefits of using opioids in the treatment of ARDS from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Immunomodulation/physiology , Lysosomes/drug effects , Receptors, Opioid/immunology
10.
Archives of Medical Science ; 16(4):1-10, 2020.
Article | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-823771

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of a newly identified coronavirus, the SARS-CoV-2 (alternative name 2019-nCoV), capable of jumping across species causing zoonosis with severe acute respiratory syndromes (SARS), has alerted authorities worldwide. Soon after the epidemic was first detected in the city of Wuhan in the Hubei Province of China, starting in late December 2019, the virus spread over multiple countries in different continents, being declared a pandemic by March 2020. The demographic characteristics of the infected patients suggest that age, sex, and comorbidities are predictive factors for the fatality of the infection. The mechanisms of viral entry into the human host cells seem to be in a close relationship with the mechanisms of regulating the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which may explain the pathogenesis associated with the infection. This brings new insights into the possibilities of exploiting viral entry mechanisms to limit associated complications by means of enhancing the resistance of the infected patients using methods of regulating the RAS and strategies of modulating ACE2 expression. In this perspective article we exploit the mechanisms of COVID-19 pathogenesis based on the demographic characteristics of the infected patients reported in the recent literature and explore several approaches of limiting the initial steps of viral entry and pathogenesis based on viral interactions with ACE2 and RAS. We further discuss the implications of reproductive hormones in the regulation of the RAS and investigate the premise of using endocrine therapy against COVID-19. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Archives of Medical Science is the property of Termedia Publishing House and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

11.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 887: 173568, 2020 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778808

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an unprecedented outbreak of pneumonia associated with a novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei province, China. The virus that caused the disease was officially named by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). According to the high transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2, it became a global pandemic and public health emergency within few months. Since SARS-CoV-2 is genetically 80% homologous with the SARS-CoVs family, it is hypothesized that medications developed for the treatment of SARS-CoVs may be useful in the control and management of SARS-CoV-2. In this regard, some medication being tested in clinical trials and in vitro studies include anti-viral RNA polymerase inhibitors, HIV-protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, angiotensin converting enzyme type 2 (ACE 2) blockers, and some other novel medications. In this communication, we reviewed the general characteristics of medications, medical usage, mechanism of action, as well as SARS-CoV-2 related trials.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Pandemics
13.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 887: 173530, 2020 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738842

ABSTRACT

The global impact of the new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), infection that caused COVID-19 has been evident in the last few months from the unprecedented socioeconomic disruption to more than 600,000 deaths. The lack of vaccine and effective therapeutic agents for the disease prompted world-wide effort to test those antiviral therapeutics already in use for other diseases. Another interesting approach has been based on the pathological sequel of the disease that involve severe inflammatory reaction (or the cytokine storm) associated with pneumonia in critically ill patients. This article outlines the prophylaxis therapeutic potential of supplements vitamins and micronutrients in COVID-19. By ameliorating the inflammatory and oxidative stress associated with the disease and some direct antiviral effects, the application of these agents as adjuvants and other alternative approaches are discussed. Available clinical trials including those currently registered on these supplements are scrutinized.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Animals , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vitamins/therapeutic use
14.
Biochimie ; 177: 50-52, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713261

ABSTRACT

Various interferon (IFN)-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are known to be expressed in human tissues though only IFITM 1-3 are inducible by IFN. Numerous studies have shown that activation of IFITM3 could suppress infection by influenza and coronaviruses such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In view of the potential application of IFITM proteins' induction to target SARS-CoV-2 infection that causes COVID-19, this article layout insights into the known antiviral mechanisms and therapeutic agents related to IFITM. Blocking viral entry through various mechanisms and the potential application of the FDA approved immunosuppressant agent, mycophenolic acid, as inducer of IFITM3 are among those discussed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferons/pharmacology , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , Mycophenolic Acid/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA-Binding Proteins/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 20(18): 1900-1907, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706996

ABSTRACT

The global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19 has become a source of grave medical and socioeconomic concern to human society. Since its first appearance in the Wuhan region of China in December 2019, the most effective measures of managing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been social distancing and lockdown of human activity; the level of which has not been seen in our generations. Effective control of the viral infection and COVID-19 will ultimately depend on the development of either a vaccine or therapeutic agents. This article highlights the progresses made so far in these strategies by assessing key targets associated with the viral replication cycle. The key viral proteins and enzymes that could be targeted by new and repurposed drugs are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Helicases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Antibodies/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Nucleosides/analogs & derivatives , Nucleosides/metabolism , Nucleosides/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
19.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104891, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197883

ABSTRACT

Individuals with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) are at very high risk of cardiovascular disease, which is associated with poor outcomes from coronavirus infections. COVID-19 puts strain on healthcare systems and may impair access to routine FH services. On behalf of the International Lipid Expert Panel (ILEP) and the European FH Patient Network (FH Europe), we present brief recommendations on the management of adult patients with FH during the COVID-19 pandemic. We discuss the implications of COVID-19 infections for FH patients, the importance of continuing lipid-lowering therapy where possible, issues relating to safety monitoring and service delivery. We summarise the evidence for additional benefits of statins and other lipid-lowering drugs during viral infections. The recommendations do not override in any way the individual responsibility of physicians to make appropriate and accurate decisions taking into account the condition of a given patient and the doses, rules, and regulations applicable to drugs and devices at the time of their prescription/use.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Management , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/complications , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , Humans , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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