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1.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(6):201-204, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939788

ABSTRACT

Background: WHO recognized COVID-19 a pandemic on March 12, 2020 and National Health Commission officially declared it as a Class-B infectious disease. The technological advancements enabled the teaching staffs to keep their students involved during this period of COVID-19 pandemic. Online classes become the efficient medium to learn by staying at home. Aim: To find out the challenges faced by mothers during online learning in order to devise a systematic plan for smooth and effective learning in case of another crises like COVID-19. Method: It was a cross sectional study carried out at CMH LMC&IOD, in which a user-defined questionnaire was introduced to the participants which were mothers of school going children from all over the city. The questionnaire got 161 responses in total, but two were incomplete so 159 were considered while doing the analysis. The results were analyzed using SPSS25. Results: In this study,46.9% mothers were of age 40 and above and 47.5% were between 31 -40 years of age. Rest were 30 and below 57.5 % children used laptops to study online, while 34.4 % used a mobile. 7% had their own tablets and only 1.1 used desktops. Only 14.4% mothers supervised their children during all this time. 58.7% however managed supervising studies with other tasks and 26.9% said their children could study online unsupervised. Only 20% mothers thought their children are taking interest in online schooling. 54.5% found their children struggling37.5% mothers thought that their children were learning much less through this online mode of education and 43.8% thought that online learning is somewhat less. Conclusion: Among the various the challenges faced by working mothers and housewives during online education of their children the most important challenge was to keep their children focused on study. We discovered that the online study had little effect on grades because most mothers had to take on the role of teacher as well as supervising.

2.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 75(2): e20-e24, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878845

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been increasing over 25 years; however, contemporary trends are not established and the impact of COVID-19 on case rates is unclear. METHODS: Data from Southampton Children's hospital prospective IBD database were retrieved for 2002-2021. Incidence rates were calculated based on referral area populations and temporal trends analysed. Disease prevalence for those aged <18 years was calculated for 2017-2021. Monoclonal prescriptions were reported. RESULTS: In total, 1150 patients were included (mean age at diagnosis 12.63 years, 40.5% female). An estimated 704 patients had Crohn's disease (61.2%), 385 had ulcerative colitis (33.5%), and 61 had IBD unclassified (5.3%). Overall IBD incidence increased, ß = 0.843, P = 3 × 10 -6 , driven by Crohn's disease, ß = 0.732, P = 0.00024 and ulcerative colitis, ß = 0.816, P = 0.000011. There was no change in IBDU incidence, ß = 0.230, P = 0.33. From 2002-2021, 51 patients were diagnosed <6 years of age, 160 patients aged 6 to <10 years and 939 patients aged 10 to <18 years of age. Increased incidence was observed in patients aged 10 to <18 years of age (ß = 0.888, P = 1.8 × 10 -7 ). There was no significant change in incidence of IBD in <6 years (ß = 0.124, P = 0.57), or 6 to <10 years (ß = 0.146, P = 0.54). IBD prevalence increased by an average of 1.71%/year from 2017 to 2021, ß = 0.979, P = 0.004. The number of new monoclonal prescriptions increased from 6 in 2007 to 111 in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: IBD incidence continues to increase in Southern England. Compounding prevalence and increased monoclonal usage has implications for service provision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adolescent , Child , Chronic Disease , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies
3.
Asean Journal of Psychiatry ; 22(9):10, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1567328

ABSTRACT

The main objective of the study was to explore the mediating role of students' satisfaction with online learning between perceived teachers support and academic achievements during the pandemic of COVID-19 in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that Students' Satisfaction with Online Learning is likely to mediate between Perceived Teachers' Support and Academic Achievements of Medical and Non-Medical students. It was also hypothesized that non-medical students are likely to be more satisfied with online learning, perceiving more teachers' support and having high academic achievements than the medical students. A sample of 400 students with the age range of 18-22 Medical Students (M=21.68, SD=1.58) and non-medical students (M=21.91, SD=1.53) was collected through convenient sampling strategy from the different institutions. It was a quasi-correlational study. Students' satisfaction with Online Learning Questionnaire, Teachers' Support Scale and Grade Point Average scores for academic achievements were used. Mediated hierarchical regression analysis revealed after controlling the effect of Students Satisfaction with Online Learning (M), the magnitude of Perceived Teachers' Support reduces from the total effect which indicates partial mediation. Sobel z test was also run to check the indirect effect which is also significant. Findings oft test indicated that medical students significantly perceive less teachers' support than non-medical students. Findings of the study are helpful for educational administration, policy makers, course designer, and curriculum developers for organizing the whole online setup new normal.

4.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 71(3):857-860, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1515761

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the impact of age on outcome of COVID-19 patients at a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Malir, Karachi, from Apr to Jun 2020. Methodology: This was a retrospective cross sectional study conducted at Combined Military Hospital Malir Karachi. About 120 positive cases of SARS COV-2 were studied, including males and females. Age range was 21-85 years. Patients were divided into groups according to age, group A (21-40 years), group B (41-55 years), group C (56-85 years). Presenting complaints and associated co morbidities were also analyzed. Mild cases were managed conservatively. Moderate to severe oxygen dependent cases were managed in intensive care units. Results: The mean age of patients was 40.24 years with 16.25 ± SD. Co-morbidities were noted in 67 (55.83%) patients, highest in group C, hypertension being the most common. Ten patients could not survive, due respiratory failure complicated by adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Bilateral infiltrates >50% observed in (14%) out of (n=120) patients. One hundred and ten patients were discharged with uneventful recovery. Conclusion: Mortality was highest among elderly patients with comorbidities. Therefore, international standing operative measures (SOPs) to be followed. Meticulous monitoring of vital signs and oxygen saturation in mild cases is the bare mini-mum requirement and timely appropriate treatment escalation of moderate to severe cases in intensive care units is the key to success. © 2021, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

6.
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences ; 16(12):1303-1311, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1414366

ABSTRACT

The history of the world during the pandemic era shows a worse kind of treatment to the effected people. The year 2020 is known as a terrifying year due to pandemics in the world. It badly exposes the healthcare system's weakness especially in the developing countries like Pakistan. Ambulance services played a major role in transporting affected people during pandemics. However, an independent survey shows that around 130 million people have very limited access to these facilities in Pakistan. The majority of the population of Pakistan lives in remote and rural areas and is deprived of these services. In this regard, remote monitoring of patients while they are in transit is very crucial. Considering the importance of providing better healthcare services to patients, we propose a model for remote patient monitoring systems (RPMS) integrated with emergency services in Pakistan. This healthcare model continuously keeps track of people including patients and nearest ambulances (the in-context emergency service and the key resource) for helping patients by transporting them to the appropriate healthcare center, as per needed assistance on the go. It helps reducing response time and yet increasing golden time by directly engaging the ambulance from the nearest location (using spatial and temporal features) and bypassing the call center to save the inevitable consumption of time shattered by conventional method. The represented model may enhance the availability of emergency healthcare facilities by reducing service time and allow efficient use of resources. © 2021 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All Rights Reserved.

7.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9):2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1407476
8.
Journal of Cleaner Production ; 318:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1397446

ABSTRACT

The existing finite natural resources have witnessed unsustainable usage in the past few years, especially for food production, with accompanying environmental devastation and ecosystem damage. Regrettably, the global population and consumption demands are increasing ceaselessly, leading to the need for more resources for food production, which could potentially aggravate the sustainability and ecosystem degradation issues, while stimulating drastic climate change. Meanwhile, the unexpected emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and some implemented measures to combat its spread disrupted agricultural activities and the food supply chain, which also led to a reduction in ecosystem carbonization. This study sets out to explore policy framework and selected feasible actions that are being adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic, which could potentially reduce the emissions even after the pandemic to promote a resilient and sustainable agri-food system. In this study, we reviewed 27 articles that focus on the current state of the agri-food system in light of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the decarbonization of the agroecosystem. This review has taken the form of a systematic methodology in analyzing the adoption and implementation of various measures to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 on the impact of the agri-food system and reduction in ecosystem degradation. Up to 0.3 Mt of CO 2 reduction from the agri-food system alone was reportedly achieved during the first 6 months of the pandemic in 23 European countries. The various adopted measures indicate that the circular economy approach is a panacea to achieve the needed sustainability in the agri-food system. Also, it dictates a need for a paradigm change towards improvement on localized food production that promotes sustainable production and consumption. • The recent emergence of the agro-food system nexus as impacted by COVID-19 is reviewed. • Feasible adoption of COVID-19 measures for agroecosystem decarbonization is explored. • The gaps and constraints in the adoption of the CE approach to the agro-food systems were uncovered. • Circular economy in agroecosystems a panacea to sustainable agri-food system. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Cleaner Production is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

9.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 15(8):22-26, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1362745

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has taken the world by storm since its detection in China. The pandemic swept across the globe and affected India. The presence or absence of co-morbidities may determine the clinical outcome. Clinical manifestations include cough, fever and dyspnoea mainly. Aim: To elucidate epidemiological findings, clinical features, co-morbidities of COVID-19 disease and clinical outcomes in first 500 COVID-19 patients admitted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Northern India. Materials and Methods: The retrospective observational study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital (JNMCH), Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India, from 21st April to 27th October 2020 on first 500 Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)/ Rapid Antigen or TruNatBeta positive patients. During January to March 2021 period data was collected and analysed. Data was analysed for epidemiological parameters, Symptoms and Clinical hospital outcomes of patients. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) VERSION 21.0 IBM and p-value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Out of total patients, 284 (56.80%) and 216 (43.20%) were males and females respectively and 11.12% of females were pregnant. Difference in mean ages of males and females was significant (p-value<0.001). The results show that 434 patients (86.80%) recovered fully and were discharged (more males were discharged), whereas 47 (9.40%) patients died. Out of total 500 patients 75.60% patients stayed in the hospital for more than 72 hours and 24.40% stayed for less than 72 hours. The mean age of patients who stayed for less than 72 hours was 48.85± 17.93 as compared (44.23± 17.45) to those who stayed for more than 72 hours and the difference was significant (p-value=0.012). Most common symptom was fever (58%) followed by cough (32%) and dyspnoea (31%). The association between the duration of stay and clinical outcome was significant (p-value<0.001). Conclusion: Gender, advancing age, duration of stay and associated co-morbidities appear to play role in infection and outcome of COVID-19.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255440, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341504

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in quarantine/lockdown measures in most countries. Quarantine may create intense psychological problems including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) especially for the vulnerable critically developing children/adolescents. Few studies evaluated PTSD associated with infectious disasters but no Saudi study investigated PTSD associated with COVID-19 in children/adolescents. This study was undertaken to screen for PTSD in children/adolescent in Saudi Arabia to identify its prevalence/risk factors during COVID-19 pandemic and its quarantine. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted after 2 months form start of quarantine for COVID-19 pandemic utilizing the original English version and an Arabic translated version for the University of California at Los Angeles Brief COVID-19 Screen for Child/Adolescent PTSD that can be parent-reported or self-completed by older children/adolescents. Participants (Saudi citizens/non-Saudi residents) were approached online via social media. RESULTS: Five hundred and thirty seven participants were enrolled. The participants were 262 boys and 275 girls with a mean age of 12.25±3.77 years. Symptoms of no, minimal, mild and potential PTSD were identified in 15.5%, 44.1%, 27.4% and 13.0% of children/adolescents, respectively. The age, gender, school grade, and residence were not predictive of PTSD symptoms. Univariate analysis of risk factors for PTSD revealed that work of a close relative around people who might be infected was significantly different between groups of PTSD symptoms, but this difference disappeared during multivariate analysis. Children/adolescents of Saudi citizens had significantly lower median total PTSD score than children/adolescents of expatriate families (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: PTSD associated with the COVID-19 and its resultant quarantine shouldn't be overlooked in different populations as it is expected in a considerable proportion of children/adolescents with variable prevalence, risk factors and severity. Parents/healthcare providers must be aware of PTSD associated with COVID-19 or similar disasters, so, they can provide children/adolescent with effective coping mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Psychology, Child , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
11.
Journal of Cleaner Production ; : 128451, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1330945

ABSTRACT

The existing finite natural resources have witnessed unsustainable usage in the past few years, especially for food production, with accompanying environmental devastation and ecosystem damage. Regrettably, the global population and consumption demands are increasing ceaselessly, leading to the need for more resources for food production, which could potentially aggravate the sustainability and ecosystem degradation issues, and stimulating drastic climate change. Meanwhile, the unexpected emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and some implemented measures to combat its spread disrupted agricultural activities and the food supply chain, which also lead to a reduction in ecosystem carbonization. This study sets out to explore policy framework and selected feasible actions that are adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic that could potentially reduce the emissions even after the post-pandemic to promote a resilient and sustainable agri-food system. In this study, we reviewed 27 articles that focus on the current state of the agri-food system in light of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the decarbonization of the agroecosystem. This review has taken the form of a systematic methodology in analyzing the adoption and implementation of various measures to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 on the impact of the agri-food system and reduction in ecosystem degradation. Up to 0.3 Mt of CO2 reduction from the agri-food system alone was reportedly achieved during the first 6 months of the pandemic in 23 European countries. The various adopted measures indicate that the circular economy approach is a panacea to achieve the needed sustainability in the agri-food system. Also, it dictates a need for a paradigm change towards improvement on the localized food production that promotes sustainable production and consumption.

12.
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry ; : 1-13, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1319083

ABSTRACT

With the advent of technologies in many countries, pharmaceutically active compounds (PhAC), personal care products (PPCPs), and other medicines have been treated by particular facilities. Although the overall rate of PhACs extraction from hospital wastewater (HWW) through different secondary wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has been high equal to 79–99%, activity and proliferation of neurotransmitters are inhibited by antiseptics due to the low removal rate of some elements, such as naproxen, excellent-performance technologies are still needed. Venlafaxine and citalopram are the most used antidepressants associated with 10–12% removal value through WWTPs. While HWW contains various types of antibiotics, they improve biocides’ bacterial tolerance against treatment. Ozonation is one of the methods to enhance biodegradability, whereas biofilm reactors have effectively removed emerging contaminants (ECs). Combined activate sludge (CAS) and membrane filtration bioreactors will potently exclude compounds, but previous studies show that membrane filtration bioreactors are around 30%-55% more efficient. ECs elimination in tertiary treatment has shown its great ability rather than conventional treatment sectors. Moreover, ozone treatment can decrease in PPCPs value as 90–98% through activated carbon beds. Activated carbon (NAC) has shown its full capability for micropollutants removal from PAC and membrane bioreactors as well as PPCP reside removal from treated effluents. The ratio of infect COVID-19 in one area was directly proportional, as revealed by SARS-CoV-2 detection in both HWW and wastewater in almost all countries. In this research study, multiple treatment techniques are evaluated in order to offer great-performance technology. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

13.
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering ; : 100113, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1284028

ABSTRACT

Scientific advancements from 2002–2020 for coronaviruses, i.e., SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV outbreaks, could lead towards a better understanding of the exposure to a health crisis. However, data on its transmission routes and persistence in the environment is still in need of the hour. In this review, we discuss the impact of environmental matrices on dealing with the consequences of the global COVID-19 outbreak. We have compiled the most recent data on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the diseases. The review aims to help researchers and the larger public recognize and deal with the consequences of co-occurring viral indicators for COVID-19 and provide nano-technological perspectives of possible diagnostic and treatment tools for further studies. The review highlights environmental wastes such as hospital wastewater effluents, pathogen-laden waste, pathogen-laden ground/surface water, wastewater sludge residues and discusses their potential remediation technologies, i.e., pathogen-contaminated soil disposal, municipal and medical solid waste collection, recycling, and final disposal. Finally, holistic suggestions to tackle environmental-related issues by the scientific community have been provided, where scientists, consultants may involve in a tiered assessment from the hazard to risk management in the post-COVID-19 world.

14.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277257

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of COVID-19, healthcare worldwide is afflicted. While there is a spectrum of disease severity and presenting symptoms in infected patients, hypoxemic respiratory failure is the leading cause of mortality. Decision to intubate in rapidly deteriorating patients plays a significant role in determining patient outcome. In most patients, COVID-19 pneumonia initially causes worsening hypoxemia but minimal impairment of lung compliance which determines the work of breathing (WOB). Once adequate arterial oxygenation is established, a tool to determine WOB independent of oxygen needs can guide the decision to intubate for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). We monitored oxygen requirements and WOB in 14 patients admitted to our ICU with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. All patients had radiographic evidence of extensive lung disease, significant hypoxemia and multiple comorbidities. Hypoxemia was managed through non-invasive means, predominantly using highflow nasal cannula. To assess WOB, we used a scale developed by us assigning points to the respiratory rate and use of respiratory accessory muscles (range, 1 to 7) (Figure 1a). This was used at the time of initial evaluation and throughout the ICU stay. Out of 14 patients, 10 did not require intubation and recovered while 4 were intubated. We compared the maximum and average WOB of the non-intubated patients throughout their ICU stay with the WOB of intubated patients measured within 24 hours before intubation (Figure 1b). The maximal and the average WOB were higher in patients requiring intubation (mean ± SD, maximal 4.3 ± 0.9 vs 5.5 ± 1.0 pts, p = 0.028 and average 2.7 ± 0.6 vs 3.9 ± 0.5 pts, p = 0.002). Breakdown of the various WOB components demonstrated a statistically significantly higher maximal and average use of respiratory accessory muscles (assessed as their aggregate sum) and higher average respiratory rate in intubated patients. However, the maximal respiratory rate was not significantly higher. Our data illustrates the initial response to COVID-19 lung injury is tachypnea which can be sustained with adequate oxygenation. As lung injury progresses with more recruitment of respiratory accessory muscles, intubation for IMV becomes necessary. Our WOB scale becomes a useful tool to assist in the decision of when to intubate. It is simple to teach, apply and incorporate into routine patient assessment. We recommend routine and systematic WOB assessment to plan for orderly nonemergent intubations for IMV. Further refinement on the interventions recommended based on specific WOB level and other modifying factors is awaited.

15.
StatPearls Publishing ; 01:01, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245026

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality across the world, with many nations enduring multiple outbreaks of this viral illness. Besides the importance of infection control measures to prevent or decrease the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the most crucial step to contain this global pandemic is by vaccinating individuals to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in communities across the world. Many vaccines have been developed at an unprecedented speed using distinctive technologies to prevent COVID-19. Vaccination triggers the immune system resulting in the production of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Four vaccines, namely the BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, Ad26.COV2.S and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 have been approved or granted emergency use authorization(EUA) to prevent COVID-19 in many nations worldwide, including the United States. One exception to this is the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, which has not yet received a EUA or approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the U.S. The BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines are both mRNA-based, while the Ad26.COV2. S and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines incorporate replication-incompetent adenoviral vectors in them. In late February 2021, a new clinical syndrome characterized by thrombosis at atypical sites combined with thrombocytopenia was observed in multiple patients' days after vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine.[1] In April 2021, similar clinical sequelae were reported in patients after vaccination with the Ad26.COV2. S vaccine.[2] Preceding the approval of these vaccines, the clinical constellation of this new syndrome was not observed in clinical trials of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, and a single case was observed in the Ad26.COV2. S vaccine trial recipient.[3] Furthermore, the incidence of major adverse effects has remained exceptionally low following the vaccination of more than 400 million people worldwide.[4] This novel clinical syndrome demonstrated striking similarities to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia;however, in the absence of prior heparin exposure was named vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). It is also known as vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia (VIPIT) in some European nations and Canada. Conversely, of more than 180 million doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccines administered so far, this clinical syndrome has not been reported. Per the American Society of Hematology, vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is defined as a clinical syndrome characterized by all of the below described abnormal laboratory and radiologic abnormalities occurring in individuals 4 to 30 days after vaccination with Ad26.COV2. S or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines. Development of thrombosis at uncommon sites includes cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CSVT)/splanchnic venous thrombosis. Mild to severe thrombocytopenia. However, a normal platelet count does not exclude the possibility of this syndrome in its early stages. Positive antibodies against platelet factor 4(PF4) identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay. Although the extraordinary speed of vaccine development against COVID-19 and robust ongoing mass vaccination efforts worldwide, the incidence of this newly described vaccine-induced phenomenon is associated with vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines attempt to overturn the significant progress made so far in halting the spread of SARS-CoV-2. This review article aims to describe the etiology, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of COVID-19 vaccine-induced thrombotic immune thrombocytopenia based on the latest available published literature.

16.
Environ Chem Lett ; 19(4): 2773-2787, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173925

ABSTRACT

End 2019, the zoonotic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), named COVID-19 for coronavirus disease 2019, is the third adaptation of a contagious virus following the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in 2002, SARS-CoV, and the Middle East respiratory syndrome virus in 2012, MERS-CoV. COVID-19 is highly infectious and virulent compared to previous outbreaks. We review sources, contagious routes, preventive measures, pandemic, outbreak, epidemiology of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 from 2002 to 2020 using a Medline search. We discuss the chronology of the three coronaviruses, the vulnerability of healthcare workers, coronaviruses on surface and in wastewater, diagnostics and cures, and measures to prevent spreading.

17.
Circulation ; 142:2, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1088333
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