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Energy ; : 120154, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1091848


This paper multi-criteria designing framework of a hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/wind (WT) clean energy system with battery (BA) storage (HPV/WT/BA) considering cost and reliability assessment is presented to supply an annual load based on real irradiance and wind speed patterns. The designing goal is optimal sizing of the HPV/WT/BA system with the objective of minimizing the net present cost of clean energy generation (NPCEG) as well as the loss of load and CO2 emission cost with satisfying reliability constraint as energy not supplied probability (ENSP) considering stand-alone and grid-connected modes. Decision-making variables include an optimal number of PVs, WTs, batteries, inverter transferred power and PVs angle that is determined optimally using new improved moth flame optimization (IMFO) based on decreasing inertia weight strategy (DIWS) to overcome premature convergence. The designing is implemented for various system combinations in stand-alone mode, including HPV/BA, HWT/BA and HPV/WT/BA systems. The simulation results showed that the HPV/WT/BA is the best combination with the lowest NPCEG and the best ENSP in load supply. The superiority of the IMFO is proved compared to conventional MFO and PSO in designing of different combinations in view of cost and reliability in stand-alone mode. Moreover, the results of HPV/WT/BA optimal designing in a grid-connected mode based IMFO showed the less NPCEG and better ENSP compared to stand-alone mode due to network support with purchasing the network power and CO2 environmental waste emission cost minimization. The results showed that variation of network power, reliability constraint and also inverter efficiency has a considerable effect on designing cost and reliability. Moreover, the results illustrated the reduction of NPCEG and reliability enhancement in the condition of Covid-19.