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1.
J Pediatr Intensive Care ; 12(2): 137-147, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304877

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to describe characteristics and hospital course of children admitted with COVID-19 to a tertiary care pediatric center in Southeastern United States, and to present the frequency of three classes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and develop pediatric COVID-19 associated hyperinflammation score (PcHIS). A retrospective cohort study of 68 children was performed. Critical illness was defined as any child requiring respiratory or cardiovascular support or renal replacement therapy. PcHIS was developed by using six variables: fever, hematological dysfunction, coagulopathy, hepatic injury, macrophage activation, and cytokinemia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were used to identify MIS-C, and three classes of MIS-C were identified based on the findings of recently published latent class analysis (Class 1: MIS-C without Kawasaki like disease, Class 2: MIS-C with respiratory disease, and Class 3: MIS-C with Kawasaki like disease). The median age was 6.4 years. Fever, respiratory, and gastrointestinal were common presenting symptoms. MIS-C was present in 32 (47%), critical COVID-19 illness in 11 (16%), and 17 (25%) were admitted to the PICU. Children with critical illness were adolescents with elevated body mass index and premorbid conditions. PcHIS score of 3 had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 77% for predicting critical COVID-19 illness. Among MIS-C patients, 15 (47%) were in Class 1, 8 (25%) were in Class 2, and 9 (28%) were in Class 3. We conclude that most children with COVID-19 have mild-to-moderate illness. Critical COVID-19 is mainly seen in obese adolescents with premorbid conditions. Three Classes of MIS-C are identifiable based on clinical features. Validation and clinical implication of inflammation score in pediatric COVID-19 need further investigation.

2.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 45(3): e309-e314, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of multicenter data describing the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on hospitalized pediatric oncology patients. Using a large, multicenter, Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness University Study (VIRUS) database, we aimed at assessing outcomes of COVID-19 infection in this population. METHOD: This is a matched-cohort study involving children below 18 years of age hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 2020 and January 2021. Using the VIRUS; COVID-19 Registry database, children with oncologic diseases were compared with propensity score matched (age groups, sex, race, and ethnicity) cohort of children without oncologic diseases for the prevalence of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, interventions, hospital, and ICU length of stay. RESULTS: The number of children in the case and control groups was 45 and 180, respectively. ICU admission rate was similar in both groups ([47.7 vs 51.7%], P =0.63). The proportion of children requiring noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation, and its duration were similar between groups, same as hospital mortality. Interestingly, MIS-C was significantly lower in the oncology group compared with the control (2.4 vs 24.6%; P =0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: In this study using a multicenter VIRUS database, ICU admission rate, interventions, and outcomes of COVID-19 were similar in children with the oncologic disease compared with control patients. The incidence of MIS-C is lower in oncologic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Registries
3.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047394

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is limited evidence for therapeutic options for pediatric COVID-19 outside of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Objective: To determine whether the use of steroids within 2 days of admission for non-MIS-C COVID-19 in children is associated with hospital length of stay (LOS). The secondary objective was to determine their association with intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, inflammation, and fever defervescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed data retrospectively for children (<18 years) who required hospitalization for non-MIS-C COVID-19. Data from March 2020 through September 2021 were provided by 58 hospitals in 7 countries who participate in the Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (VIRUS) COVID-19 registry. Exposure: Administration of steroids within 2 days of admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Length of stay in the hospital and ICU. Adjustment for confounders was done by mixed linear regression and propensity score matching. Results: A total of 1163 patients met inclusion criteria and had a median (IQR) age of 7 years (0.9-14.3). Almost half of all patients (601/1163, 51.7%) were male, 33.8% (392/1163) were non-Hispanic White, and 27.9% (324/1163) were Hispanic. Of the study population, 184 patients (15.8%) received steroids within 2 days of admission, and 979 (84.2%) did not receive steroids within the first 2 days. Among 1163 patients, 658 (56.5%) required respiratory support during hospitalization. Overall, patients in the steroids group were older and had greater severity of illness, and a larger proportion required respiratory and vasoactive support. On multivariable linear regression, after controlling for treatment with remdesivir within 2 days, country, race and ethnicity, obesity and comorbidity, number of abnormal inflammatory mediators, age, bacterial or viral coinfection, and disease severity according to ICU admission within first 2 days or World Health Organization ordinal scale of 4 or higher on admission, with a random intercept for the site, early steroid treatment was not significantly associated with hospital LOS (exponentiated coefficient, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.81-1.09; P = .42). Separate analyses for patients with an LOS of 2 days or longer (n = 729), those receiving respiratory support at admission (n = 286), and propensity score-matched patients also showed no significant association between steroids and LOS. Early steroid treatment was not associated with ICU LOS, fever defervescence by day 3, or normalization of inflammatory mediators. Conclusions and Relevance: Steroid treatment within 2 days of hospital admission in a heterogeneous cohort of pediatric patients hospitalized for COVID-19 without MIS-C did not have a statistically significant association with hospital LOS.

4.
Pharmacotherapy ; 42(7): 529-539, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Suggested therapeutic options for Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) include intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and steroids. Prior studies have shown the benefit of combination therapy with both agents on fever control or the resolution of organ dysfunction. The primary objective of this study was to analyze the impact of IVIG and steroids on hospital and ICU length of stay (LOS) in patients with MIS-C associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study on 356 hospitalized patients with MIS-C from March 2020 to September 2021 (28 sites in the United States) in the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (VIRUS) COVID-19 Registry. The effect of IVIG and steroids initiated in the first 2 days of admission, alone or in combination, on LOS was analyzed. Adjustment for confounders was made by multivariable mixed regression with a random intercept for the site. RESULTS: The median age of the study population was 8.8 (Interquartile range (IQR) 4.0, 13) years. 247/356 (69%) patients required intensive care unit (ICU) admission during hospitalization. Overall hospital mortality was 2% (7/356). Of the total patients, 153 (43%) received IVIG and steroids, 33 (9%) received IVIG only, 43 (12%) received steroids only, and 127 (36%) received neither within 2 days of admission. After adjustment of confounders, only combination therapy showed a significant decrease of ICU LOS by 1.6 days compared to no therapy (exponentiated coefficient 0.71 [95% confidence interval 0.51, 0.97, p = 0.03]). No significant difference was observed in hospital LOS or the secondary outcome variable of the normalization of inflammatory mediators by Day 3. CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy with IVIG and steroids initiated in the first 2 days of admission favorably impacts ICU but not the overall hospital LOS in children with MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Cohort Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States
5.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:76-76, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1591493

ABSTRACT

B Introduction: b Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children with cancer diagnosis hospitalized with COVID-19 are limited. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics, ICU interventions, and outcomes in pediatric patients admitted with COVID - 19 with any oncologic diagnosis using Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (VIRUS) COVID-19 registry. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
SAGE Open Med Case Rep ; 9: 2050313X21989465, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105593

ABSTRACT

In the United States, an estimated 7.3% of confirmed cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19) are among persons aged less than 18 years. Data regarding clinical manifestations in this age group are still evolving. An upper airway predilection has been reported in children. We describe the case of a 15-year-old female with supraglottitis and unilateral hypomobility of vocal cord with concern for critical airway, associated with COVID-19. She was managed by a multidisciplinary team including critical care, infectious diseases, and otolaryngology. This report adds to the sparse but evolving body of literature on the clinical presentation of COVID-19 disease in children.

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