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1.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 23(11): 908-918, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in adaptations to pediatric resuscitation systems of care. The objective of this study was to determine the temporal association between the pandemic and pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) process of care metrics, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) quality, and patient outcomes. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective analysis of a dataset comprising observations of IHCA outcomes pre pandemic (March 1, 2019 to February 29, 2020) versus pandemic (March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021). SETTING: Data source was the ICU-RESUScitation Project ("ICU-RESUS;" NCT028374497), a prospective, multicenter, cluster randomized interventional trial. PATIENTS: Children (≤ 18 yr) who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation while admitted to the ICU and were enrolled in ICU-RESUS. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 429 IHCAs meeting inclusion criteria, occurrence during the pandemic period was associated with higher frequency of hypotension as the immediate cause of arrest. Cardiac arrest physiology, cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality metrics, and postarrest physiologic and quality of care metrics were similar between the two periods. Survival with favorable neurologic outcome (Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score 1-3 or unchanged from baseline) occurred in 102 of 195 subjects (52%) during the pandemic compared with 140 of 234 (60%) pre pandemic ( p = 0.12). Among survivors, occurrence of IHCA during the pandemic period was associated with a greater increase in Functional Status Scale (FSS) (i.e., worsening) from baseline (1 [0-3] vs 0 [0-2]; p = 0.01). After adjustment for confounders, IHCA survival during the pandemic period was associated with a greater increase in FSS from baseline (+1.19 [95% CI, 0.35-2.04] FSS points; p = 0.006) and higher odds of a new FSS-defined morbidity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.03-3.46]; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Using the ICU-RESUS dataset, we found that relative to the year prior, pediatric IHCA during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with greater worsening of functional status and higher odds of new functional morbidity among survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Child , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Prospective Studies , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/therapy
2.
J Pediatr ; 226: 55-63.e2, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-765218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical manifestations and outcomes of critically ill children with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in New York City. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study of children 1 month to 21 years admitted March 14 to May 2, 2020, to 9 New York City pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. RESULTS: Of 70 children admitted to PICUs, median age was 15 (IQR 9, 19) years; 61.4% male; 38.6% Hispanic; 32.9% black; and 74.3% with comorbidities. Fever (72.9%) and cough (71.4%) were the common presenting symptoms. Twelve patients (17%) met severe sepsis criteria; 14 (20%) required vasopressor support; 21 (30%) developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); 9 (12.9%) met acute kidney injury criteria; 1 (1.4%) required renal-replacement therapy, and 2 (2.8%) had cardiac arrest. For treatment, 27 (38.6%) patients received hydroxychloroquine; 13 (18.6%) remdesivir; 23 (32.9%) corticosteroids; 3 (4.3%) tocilizumab; and 1 (1.4%) anakinra; no patient was given immunoglobulin or convalescent plasma. Forty-nine (70%) patients required respiratory support: 14 (20.0%) noninvasive mechanical ventilation, 20 (28.6%) invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), 7 (10%) prone position, 2 (2.8%) inhaled nitric oxide, and 1 (1.4%) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Nine (45%) of the 20 patients requiring IMV were extubated by day 14 with median IMV duration of 218 (IQR 79, 310.4) hours. Presence of ARDS was significantly associated with duration of PICU and hospital stay, and lower probability of PICU and hospital discharge at hospital day 14 (P < .05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill children with COVID-19 predominantly are adolescents, have comorbidities, and require some form of respiratory support. The presence of ARDS is significantly associated with prolonged PICU and hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Adolescent , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(9): e651-e660, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-631606

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: While most pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 cases are not life threatening, some children have severe disease requiring emergent resuscitative interventions. Resuscitation events present risks to healthcare provider safety and the potential for compromised patient care. Current resuscitation practices and policies for children with suspected/confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 are unknown. DESIGN: Multi-institutional survey regarding inpatient resuscitation practices during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. SETTING: Internet-based survey. SUBJECTS: U.S. PICU representatives (one per institution) involved in resuscitation system planning and oversight. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 130 institutions surveyed, 78 (60%) responded. Forty-eight centers (62%) had admitted coronavirus disease 2019 patients; 26 (33%) reported code team activation for patients with suspected/confirmed coronavirus disease 2019. Sixty-seven respondents (86%) implemented changes to inpatient emergency response systems. The most common changes were as follows: limited number of personnel entering patient rooms (75; 96%), limited resident involvement (71; 91%), and new or refined team roles (74; 95%). New or adapted technology is being used for coronavirus disease 2019 resuscitations in 58 centers (74%). Most institutions (57; 73%) are using enhanced personal protective equipment for all coronavirus disease 2019 resuscitation events; 18 (23%) have personal protective equipment policies dependent on the performance of aerosol generating procedures. Due to coronavirus disease 2019, most respondents are intubating earlier during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (56; 72%), utilizing video laryngoscopy (67; 86%), pausing chest compressions during laryngoscopy (56; 72%), and leaving patients connected to the ventilator during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (56; 72%). Responses were varied regarding airway personnel, prone cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ventilation strategy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation without an airway in place, and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Most institutions (46; 59%) do not have policies regarding limitations of resuscitation efforts in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most U.S. pediatric institutions rapidly adapted their resuscitation systems and practices in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Changes were commonly related to team members and roles, personal protective equipment, and airway and breathing management, reflecting attempts to balance quality resuscitation with healthcare provider safety.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospitals , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Airway Management/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
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