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Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(2)2023 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309398


With the move of molecular tests from diagnostic labs to on-site testing becoming more common, there is a sudden rise in demand for nucleic acid-based diagnostic tools that are selective, sensitive, flexible to terrain changes, and cost-effective to assist in point-of-care systems for large-scale screening and to be used in remote locations in cases of outbreaks and pandemics. CRISPR-based biosensors comprise a promising new approach to nucleic acid detection, which uses Cas effector proteins (Cas9, Cas12, and Cas13) as extremely specialized identification components that may be used in conjunction with a variety of readout approaches (such as fluorescence, colorimetry, potentiometry, lateral flow assay, etc.) for onsite analysis. In this review, we cover some technical aspects of integrating the CRISPR Cas system with traditional biosensing readout methods and amplification technologies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and continue to elaborate on the prospects of the developed biosensor in the detection of some major viral and bacterial diseases. Within the scope of this article, we also discuss the recent COVID pandemic and the numerous CRISPR biosensors that have undergone development since its advent. Finally, we discuss some challenges and future prospects of CRISPR Cas systems in point-of-care testing.

Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , Biological Assay , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , COVID-19 Testing
Luminescence ; 2022 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284289


The review discusses the diagnostic application of biosensors as point-of-care devices in the COVID-19 pandemic. Biosensors are important analytical tools that can be used for the robust and effective detection of infectious diseases in real-time. In this current scenario, the utilization of smart, efficient biosensors for COVID-19 detection is increasing and we have included a few smart biosensors such as smart and intelligent based biosensors, plasmonic biosensors, field effect transistor (FET) biosensors, smart optical biosensors, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensor, screen printed electrode (SPE)-based biosensor, molecular imprinted polymer (MIP)-based biosensor, MXene-based biosensor and metal-organic frame smart sensor. Their significance as well as the benefits and drawbacks of each kind of smart sensor are mentioned in depth. Furthermore, we have compiled a list of various biosensors which have been developed across the globe for COVID-19 and have shown promise as commercial detection devices. Significant challenges in the development of effective diagnostic methods are discussed and recommendations have been made for better diagnostic outcomes to manage the ongoing pandemic effectively.

J Med Virol ; 94(10): 4628-4643, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888758


The global pandemic of COVID-19 began in December 2019 and is still continuing. The past 2 years have seen the emergence of several variants that were more vicious than each other. The emergence of Omicron (B.1.1.529) proved to be a huge epidemiological concern as the rate of infection of this particular strain was enormous. The strain was identified in South Africa on November 24, 2021 and was classified as a "Variant of Concern" on November 26, 2021. The Omicron variant possessed mutations in the key RBD region, the S region, thereby increasing the affinity of ACE2 for better transmission of the virus. Antibody resistance was found in this variant and it was able to reduce vaccine efficiency of vaccines. The need for a booster vaccine was brought forth due to the prevalence of the Omicron variant and, subsequently, this led to targeted research and development of variant-specific vaccines and booster dosage. This review discusses broadly the genomic characters and features of Omicron along with its specific mutations, evolution, antibody resistance, and evasion, utilization of CRISPR-Cas12a assay for Omicron detection, T-cell immunity elicited by vaccines against Omicron, and strategies to decrease Omicron infection along with COVID-19 and it also discusses on XE recombinant variant and on infectivity of BA.2 subvariant of Omicron.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccine Development