Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 9(8)2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023765

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most-common cause of cardiovascular death, after myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We aimed to evaluate the attributes and outcomes of PE specifically in women and explore sex-based differences. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using electronic databases PubMed and Embase up to 1 April 2022 to identify studies investigating PE in women. Of the studies found, 93 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included. The risk of PE in older women (especially >40 years of age) superseded that of age-matched men, although the overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence of PE was found to be lower in women. Risk factors for PE in women included age, rheumatologic disorders, hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptive pills, pregnancy and postpartum period, recent surgery, immobilization, trauma, increased body mass index, obesity, and heart failure. Regarding pregnancy, a relatively higher incidence of PE has been observed in the immediate postpartum period compared to the antenatal period. Women with PE tended to be older, presented more often with dyspnea, and were found to have higher NT-proBNP levels compared to men. No sex-based differences in in-hospital mortality and 30-day all-cause mortality were found. However, PE-related mortality was higher in women, particularly in hemodynamically stable patients. These differences form the basis of future research and outlets for reducing the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of PE in women.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(11)2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869672

ABSTRACT

While the relative efficacy of remdesivir as a therapeutic agent in selected patients with COVID-19 has been established, safety concerns have been raised regarding potential nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Our main objective was to investigate the kidney- and liver-related safety outcomes in patients with COVID-19 treated with remdesivir in a public hospital in New York. A propensity score-matched retrospective study was conducted in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 1 June 2020 to 10 March 2021. A total of 927 patients were included in this study (remdesivir: 427, non-remdesivir: 500; women: 51.8%; median age 61 years; median BMI: 28.5 kg/m2). Matching without replacement yielded a cohort of 248 patients (124 in each group). In the matched cohort, the remdesivir group had a significantly lower rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) (12.1% vs. 21.8%, p = 0.042), a lower rate of acute liver injury (ALI) on the verge of statistical significance (7.3% vs. 14.5%, p = 0.067), and non-significantly lower death rate (13.7% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.593) compared to the non-remdesivir group. Multivariable analyses revealed that patients treated with remdesivir were found to be associated with a significantly lower likelihood for AKI (OR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.24-0.67, p < 0.001), no association was found for ALI (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.35-1.30, p = 0.241), while a trend towards an association of patients treated with remdesivir with a lower likelihood for in-hospital death was observed (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.32-1.01, p = 0.053). In conclusion, no safety concerns with regards to renal and liver outcomes were raised in patients with COVID-19 treated with remdesivir. Instead, there were signals of possible nephroprotection and improved in-hospital mortality.

4.
Am J Med ; 135(7): 897-905, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Statins have been commonly used for primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. We hypothesized that statins may improve in-hospital outcomes for hospitalized patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to its known anti-inflammatory effects. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study at the largest municipal health care system in the United States, including adult patients who were hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 1 and December 1, 2020. The primary endpoint was in-hospital death. Propensity score matching was conducted to balance possible confounding variables between patients receiving statins during hospitalization (statin group) and those not receiving statins (non-statin group). Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of statin use and other variables with in-hospital outcomes. RESULTS: There were 8897 patients eligible for study enrollment, with 3359 patients in the statin group and 5538 patients in the non-statin group. After propensity score matching, both the statin and non-statin groups included 2817 patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the statin group had a significantly lower risk of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.80; P < .001) and mechanical ventilation (OR 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.90; P < .001) compared with the non-statin group. CONCLUSION: Statin use was associated with lower likelihood of in-hospital mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Adult , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States
5.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(6): 691-698, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270198

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to provide insight into the outcome of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and invasive mechanical ventilation use in critically ill COVID-19 patients. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases PubMed Central and PubMed were searched from January 2020 to June 2020 for published studies about ECMO and/or invasive mechanical ventilation use in COVID-19 patients. Data Extraction and Study Selection: The search strategy retrieved 766 articles, of which 19 studies consisting of 204 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. DATA SYNTHESIS: Primary outcomes evaluated were discharge and/or clinical improvement and mortality rate. Secondary outcomes evaluated included reported complications and the mean number of days of hospitalization for survivors. Weighted averages of included studies were calculated, and data were pooled in forest plots. Nearly, 68.1% of the patients received invasive mechanical ventilation without ECMO support, and 31.9% were placed on ECMO. Also, 22.5% of the patients were discharged and/or clinically improved and 51.5% died. Twenty-six percent of the study population deteriorated but remained alive or experienced no improvement in clinical condition. And 75.2% of those who died belonged to the non-ECMO group and 24.8% to the ECMO group. The mortality rate in the non-ECMO group was 56.8% compared to 40% in the ECMO group. CONCLUSION: The utility of ECMO during a pandemic is uncertain as it is a resource-intensive modality, especially when the mortality rate in severely ill patients infected with COVID-19 virus is already known to be high. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Nagraj S, Karia R, Hassanain S, Ghosh P, Shah VR, Thomas A. Role of Invasive Mechanical Ventilation and ECMO in the Management of COVID-19: A Systematic Review. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(6):691-698.

6.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(3): 1124-1133, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218670

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel virus that has infected millions of people across the world. Given the compelling need to develop a therapeutic strategy, hydroxychloroquine has been advocated as an effective drug for the infection. However, multiple clinical trials conducted using hydroxychloroquine have yielded contrasting results. An electronic search using the primary databases from WHO, PubMed and Google Scholar was performed that yielded 21 studies eligible for inclusion. Among a total of 1,350 patients who received hydroxychloroquine, 689 (51.04%) were females. The most commonly reported comorbidities include hypertension (15.18%), diabetes mellitus (8.44%) and pulmonary disease (8.96%). Of the hydroxychloroquine-treated patients, 70% were virologically cured compared to 12.5% of the control group (p = 0.001). A good clinical outcome with virological cure was reported in 973 patients (91%) within 10 days out of 1,061 hydroxychloroquine-treated patients. A total of 29 (65%) renal transplant recipients achieved complete recovery following hydroxychloroquine administration. A total of 37 (2.7%) patients reported QT prolongation. Hydroxychloroquine was found to reduce mortality in healthy, SARS-Cov-2 positive patients and improve clinical recovery in renal transplant recipients. However, a definitive conclusion regarding its effect on viral clearance can only be reached by conducting more clinical trials involving bigger and diverse samples.

7.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 2(11): 2086-2095, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-747101

ABSTRACT

As of August 06, 2020, 18.9 million cases of SARS-CoV-2 and more than 711,000 deaths have been reported. As per available data, 80% of the patients experience mild disease, 20% need hospital admission, and about 5% require intensive care. To date, several modes of transmission such as droplet, contact, airborne, blood borne, and fomite have been described as plausible. Several studies have demonstrated shedding of the virus from patients after being free from symptoms, i.e. prolonged virus shedding. While few studies demonstrated virus shedding in convalescent patients, i.e. those testing negative for presence of virus on nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal swabs, yet virus shedding was reported from other sources. Maximum duration of conversion time reported among the included studies was 60 days, while the least duration was 3 days. Viral shedding from sources other than nasopharynx and oropharynx, like stools, urine, saliva, semen, and tears, was reported. More number of studies described virus shedding from gastrointestinal tract (mainly in stools), while least a number of cases tested positive for the virus in tears. Prolonged viral shedding is important to consider while discontinuing isolation procedures and/or discharging SARS-CoV-2 patients. The risk of transmission varies in magnitude and depends on the infectivity of the shed virus in biological samples and the patient population involved. Clinical decision-making should be governed by clinical scenario, guidelines, detectable viral load, source of detectable virus, infectivity, and patient-related factors.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL