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1.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1976762

ABSTRACT

Purpose The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified a potential safety concern for thromboembolic events (TEEs) after Ad.26.COV2.S COVID-19 Vaccine. We sought to characterize the frequency, severity, type, and anatomic location of TEEs reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following Ad.26.COV2.S. Methods Reports of TEEs after Ad.26.COV2.S were identified in VAERS, and demographics, clinical characteristics, and relevant medical history were summarized. For a subset of reports, physicians reviewed available medical records and evaluated clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, risk factors, and treatment. The crude reporting rate of TEEs was estimated based on case counts in VAERS and vaccine administration data. Results Through February 28, 2022, FDA identified 3,790 reports of TEEs after Ad.26.COV2.S. Median age was 56?years, and 1,938 individuals (51.1%) were female. Most reports, 2,892 (76.3%), were serious, including 421 deaths. Median time to onset was 12?days post-vaccination. Obesity and ischemia were among the most commonly documented risk factors. Thrombocytopenia (platelet count less than 150,000 per ?L) was documented in 63 records (11.5%) and anti-platelet 4 antibodies in 25 (4.6%). Medical review identified cases of severe clot burden (e.g., bilateral, saddle, or other massive pulmonary embolism with or without cor pulmonale;lower extremity thrombus involving the external iliac, common femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial, peroneal, and gastrocnemius veins). The crude reporting rate was ~20.7 cases of TEE per 100,000 doses of Ad.26.COV2.S administered. Conclusions Life-threatening or fatal TEEs have been reported after Ad.26.COV2.S, including bilateral massive pulmonary embolism or other severe clot burden. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336825

ABSTRACT

Background Despite widely available safety information for the COVID-19 vaccines, vaccine hesitancy remains a challenge. In some cases, vaccine hesitancy may be related to concerns about the number of reports of death to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Objective To provide information and context about reports of death to VAERS following COVID-19 vaccination. Design Descriptive study;reporting rates for VAERS death reports. Setting United States;December 14, 2020, to November 17, 2021. Participants COVID-19 vaccine recipients. Measurements Reporting rates for death events per million persons vaccinated;adverse event counts;data mining signals of disproportionate reporting. Results 9,201 death events were reported for COVID-19 vaccine recipients aged five years and older (or age unknown). Reporting rates for death events increased with increasing age, and males generally had higher reporting rates than females. For death events within seven days and 42 days of vaccination, respectively, observed reporting rates were lower than the expected all-cause death rates. Reporting rates for Ad26.COV2.S vaccine were generally higher than for mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, but still lower than the expected all-cause death rates. Reported adverse events were non-specific or reflected the known leading causes of death. Limitations VAERS data are subject to several limitations such as reporting bias (underreporting and stimulated reporting), missing or inaccurate information, and lack of a control group. Reported diagnoses, including deaths, are not causally verified diagnoses. Conclusion Reporting rates for death events were lower than the expected all-cause mortality rates. Trends in reporting rates reflected known trends in background mortality rates. These findings do not suggest an association between vaccination and overall increased mortality. Funding Source No external sources of funding were used.

3.
JAMA ; 326(16): 1606-1613, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505020

ABSTRACT

Importance: As part of postauthorization safety surveillance, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified a potential safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccine. Objective: To assess reports of GBS received in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. Design, Setting, and Participants: Reports of presumptive GBS were identified in a US passive reporting system (VAERS) February-July 2021 and characterized, including demographics, clinical characteristics, and relevant medical history. Exposures: Receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine; the comparator was the background rate of GBS in the general (unvaccinated) population that had been estimated and published based on a standardized case definition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presumptive GBS; the reporting rate was analyzed, including calculation of the observed to expected ratio based on background rates and vaccine administration data. Because of limited availability of medical records, cases were not assessed according to the Brighton Collaboration criteria for GBS. Results: As of July 24, 2021, 130 reports of presumptive GBS were identified in VAERS following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination (median age, 56 years; IQR, 45-62 years; 111 individuals [86.0%] were < 65 years; 77 men [59.7%]). The median time to onset of GBS following vaccination was 13 days (IQR, 10-18 days), with 105 cases (81.4%) beginning within 21 days and 123 (95.3%) within 42 days. One hundred twenty-one reports (93.1%) were serious, including 1 death. With approximately 13 209 858 doses of vaccine administered to adults in the US, the estimated crude reporting rate was 1 case of GBS per 100 000 doses administered. The overall estimated observed to expected rate ratio was 4.18 (95% CI, 3.47-4.98) for the 42-day window, and in the worst-case scenario analysis for adults 18 years or older, corresponded to an estimated absolute rate increase of 6.36 per 100 000 person-years (based on a rate of approximately 8.36 cases per 100 000 person-years [123 cases per 1 472 162 person-years] compared with a background rate of approximately 2 cases per 100 000 person-years). For both risk windows, the observed to expected rate ratio was elevated in all age groups except individuals aged 18 through 29 years. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest a potential small but statistically significant safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. However, the findings are subject to the limitations of passive reporting systems and presumptive case definition, and they must be considered preliminary pending analysis of medical records to establish a definitive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
4.
JAMA ; 326(16): 1606-1613, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453486

ABSTRACT

Importance: As part of postauthorization safety surveillance, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified a potential safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccine. Objective: To assess reports of GBS received in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. Design, Setting, and Participants: Reports of presumptive GBS were identified in a US passive reporting system (VAERS) February-July 2021 and characterized, including demographics, clinical characteristics, and relevant medical history. Exposures: Receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine; the comparator was the background rate of GBS in the general (unvaccinated) population that had been estimated and published based on a standardized case definition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presumptive GBS; the reporting rate was analyzed, including calculation of the observed to expected ratio based on background rates and vaccine administration data. Because of limited availability of medical records, cases were not assessed according to the Brighton Collaboration criteria for GBS. Results: As of July 24, 2021, 130 reports of presumptive GBS were identified in VAERS following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination (median age, 56 years; IQR, 45-62 years; 111 individuals [86.0%] were < 65 years; 77 men [59.7%]). The median time to onset of GBS following vaccination was 13 days (IQR, 10-18 days), with 105 cases (81.4%) beginning within 21 days and 123 (95.3%) within 42 days. One hundred twenty-one reports (93.1%) were serious, including 1 death. With approximately 13 209 858 doses of vaccine administered to adults in the US, the estimated crude reporting rate was 1 case of GBS per 100 000 doses administered. The overall estimated observed to expected rate ratio was 4.18 (95% CI, 3.47-4.98) for the 42-day window, and in the worst-case scenario analysis for adults 18 years or older, corresponded to an estimated absolute rate increase of 6.36 per 100 000 person-years (based on a rate of approximately 8.36 cases per 100 000 person-years [123 cases per 1 472 162 person-years] compared with a background rate of approximately 2 cases per 100 000 person-years). For both risk windows, the observed to expected rate ratio was elevated in all age groups except individuals aged 18 through 29 years. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest a potential small but statistically significant safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. However, the findings are subject to the limitations of passive reporting systems and presumptive case definition, and they must be considered preliminary pending analysis of medical records to establish a definitive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(32): 1094-1099, 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355300

ABSTRACT

In December 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) for Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, and in February 2021, FDA issued an EUA for the Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccine. After each EUA, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued interim recommendations for vaccine use; currently Pfizer-BioNTech is authorized and recommended for persons aged ≥12 years and Moderna and Janssen for persons aged ≥18 years (1-3). Both Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, administered as 2-dose series, are mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines, whereas the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, administered as a single dose, is a recombinant replication-incompetent adenovirus-vector vaccine. As of July 22, 2021, 187 million persons in the United States had received at least 1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine (4); close monitoring of safety surveillance has demonstrated that serious adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination are rare (5,6). Three medical conditions have been reported in temporal association with receipt of COVID-19 vaccines. Two of these (thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome [TTS], a rare syndrome characterized by venous or arterial thrombosis and thrombocytopenia, and Guillain-Barré syndrome [GBS], a rare autoimmune neurologic disorder characterized by ascending weakness and paralysis) have been reported after Janssen COVID-19 vaccination. One (myocarditis, cardiac inflammation) has been reported after Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination or Moderna COVID-19 vaccination, particularly after the second dose; these were reviewed together and will hereafter be referred to as mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. ACIP has met three times to review the data associated with these reports of serious adverse events and has comprehensively assessed the benefits and risks associated with receipt of these vaccines. During the most recent meeting in July 2021, ACIP determined that, overall, the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination in preventing COVID-19 morbidity and mortality outweigh the risks for these rare serious adverse events in adults aged ≥18 years; this balance of benefits and risks varied by age and sex. ACIP continues to recommend COVID-19 vaccination in all persons aged ≥12 years. CDC and FDA continue to closely monitor reports of serious adverse events and will present any additional data to ACIP for consideration. Information regarding risks and how they vary by age and sex and type of vaccine should be disseminated to providers, vaccine recipients, and the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Advisory Committees , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Approval , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
JAMA ; 325(24): 2448-2456, 2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318650

ABSTRACT

Importance: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) with thrombocytopenia, a rare and serious condition, has been described in Europe following receipt of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (Oxford/AstraZeneca), which uses a chimpanzee adenoviral vector. A mechanism similar to autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) has been proposed. In the US, the Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson), which uses a human adenoviral vector, received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) on February 27, 2021. By April 12, 2021, approximately 7 million Ad26.COV2.S vaccine doses had been given in the US, and 6 cases of CVST with thrombocytopenia had been identified among the recipients, resulting in a temporary national pause in vaccination with this product on April 13, 2021. Objective: To describe reports of CVST with thrombocytopenia following Ad26.COV2.S vaccine receipt. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 12 US patients with CVST and thrombocytopenia following use of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine under EUA reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from March 2 to April 21, 2021 (with follow-up reported through April 21, 2021). Exposures: Receipt of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical course, imaging, laboratory tests, and outcomes after CVST diagnosis obtained from VAERS reports, medical record review, and discussion with clinicians. Results: Patients' ages ranged from 18 to younger than 60 years; all were White women, reported from 11 states. Seven patients had at least 1 CVST risk factor, including obesity (n = 6), hypothyroidism (n = 1), and oral contraceptive use (n = 1); none had documented prior heparin exposure. Time from Ad26.COV2.S vaccination to symptom onset ranged from 6 to 15 days. Eleven patients initially presented with headache; 1 patient initially presented with back pain and later developed headache. Of the 12 patients with CVST, 7 also had intracerebral hemorrhage; 8 had non-CVST thromboses. After diagnosis of CVST, 6 patients initially received heparin treatment. Platelet nadir ranged from 9 ×103/µL to 127 ×103/µL. All 11 patients tested for the heparin-platelet factor 4 HIT antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening had positive results. All patients were hospitalized (10 in an intensive care unit [ICU]). As of April 21, 2021, outcomes were death (n = 3), continued ICU care (n = 3), continued non-ICU hospitalization (n = 2), and discharged home (n = 4). Conclusions and Relevance: The initial 12 US cases of CVST with thrombocytopenia after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination represent serious events. This case series may inform clinical guidance as Ad26.COV2.S vaccination resumes in the US as well as investigations into the potential relationship between Ad26.COV2.S vaccine and CVST with thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Critical Care , Fatal Outcome , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Thrombocytopenia/therapy
7.
Vaccine ; 39(25): 3329-3332, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to assess cases of thrombocytopenia, including immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following vaccination with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: This case-series study analyzed VAERS reports of thrombocytopenia after vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine. RESULTS: Fifteen cases of thrombocytopenia were identified among 18,841,309 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine and 13 cases among 16,260,102 doses of Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine. The reporting rate of thrombocytopenia was 0.80 per million doses for both vaccines. Based on an annual incidence rate of 3.3 ITP cases per 100,000 adults, the observed number of all thrombocytopenia cases, which includes ITP, following administration of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines is not greater than the number of ITP cases expected. CONCLUSIONS: The number of thrombocytopenia cases reported to VAERS does not suggest a safety concern attributable to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines at this time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/epidemiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , United States , Vaccines/adverse effects
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(8): 283-288, 2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102702

ABSTRACT

Two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are currently authorized for use in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine on December 11, 2020, and for the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine on December 18, 2020; each is administered as a 2-dose series. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices issued interim recommendations for Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines on December 12, 2020 (1), and December 19, 2020 (2), respectively; initial doses were recommended for health care personnel and long-term care facility (LTCF) residents (3). Safety monitoring for these vaccines has been the most intense and comprehensive in U.S. history, using the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a spontaneous reporting system, and v-safe,* an active surveillance system, during the initial implementation phases of the COVID-19 national vaccination program (4). CDC conducted descriptive analyses of safety data from the first month of vaccination (December 14, 2020-January 13, 2021). During this period, 13,794,904 vaccine doses were administered, and VAERS received and processed† 6,994 reports of adverse events after vaccination, including 6,354 (90.8%) that were classified as nonserious and 640 (9.2%) as serious.§ The symptoms most frequently reported to VAERS were headache (22.4%), fatigue (16.5%), and dizziness (16.5%). A total of 113 deaths were reported to VAERS, including 78 (65%) among LTCF residents; available information from death certificates, autopsy reports, medical records, and clinical descriptions from VAERS reports and health care providers did not suggest any causal relationship between COVID-19 vaccination and death. Rare cases of anaphylaxis after receipt of both vaccines were reported (4.5 reported cases per million doses administered). Among persons who received Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, reactions reported to the v-safe system were more frequent after receipt of the second dose than after the first. The initial postauthorization safety profiles of the two COVID-19 vaccines in current use did not indicate evidence of unexpected serious adverse events. These data provide reassurance and helpful information regarding what health care providers and vaccine recipients might expect after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States , Young Adult
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