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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294121

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infection is often observed for the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, and neutralizing antibody levels are associated with vaccine efficiency 1 . Recent studies revealed that not only anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies 2 but also antibodies against the N-terminal domain (NTD) play important roles in positively 3,4 or negatively 4-8 controlling SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Here, we found that the Delta variant completely escaped from anti-NTD neutralizing antibodies, while increasing responsiveness to anti-NTD infectivity-enhancing antibodies. Cryo-EM analysis of the Delta spike revealed that epitopes for anti-NTD neutralizing antibodies are structurally divergent, whereas epitopes for enhancing antibodies are well conserved with wild-type spike protein. Although Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2-immune sera neutralized the original Delta variant, when major anti-RBD neutralizing antibody epitopes remaining in the Delta variant were disrupted, some BNT162b2-immune sera not only lost neutralizing activity but became infection-enhanced. The enhanced infectivity disappeared when the Delta NTD was substituted with the wild-type NTD. Sera of mice immunized by Delta spike, but not wild-type spike, consistently neutralized the Delta variant lacking anti-RBD antibody epitopes without enhancing infectivity. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 variants with similar mutations in the RBD have already emerged according to the GISAID database and their pseudoviruses were resistant to some BNT162b2-immune sera. These findings demonstrate that mutations in the NTD, as well as the RBD, play an important role in antibody escape by SARS-CoV-2. Development of effective vaccines against emerging variants will be necessary, not only to protect against infection, but also to prevent further mutation of SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2489-2509, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375855

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus. Favipiravir is an orally administrable antiviral drug whose mechanism of action is to selectively inhibit RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. A preliminary trial in COVID-19 patients reported significant improvements across a multitude of clinical parameters, but these findings have not been confirmed in an adequate well-controlled trial. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III trial assessing the efficacy and safety of favipiravir in patients with moderate pneumonia not requiring oxygen therapy. METHODS: COVID-19 patients with moderate pneumonia (SpO2 ≥ 94%) within 10 days of onset of fever (temperature ≥ 37.5 °C) were assigned to receive either placebo or favipiravir (1800 mg twice a day on Day 1, followed by 800 mg twice a day for up to 13 days) in a ratio of 1:2. An adaptive design was used to re-estimate the sample size. The primary endpoint was a composite outcome defined as the time to improvement in temperature, oxygen saturation levels (SpO2), and findings on chest imaging, and recovery to SARS-CoV-2-negative. This endpoint was re-examined by the Central Committee under blinded conditions. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients were randomized. The median time of the primary endpoint was 11.9 days in the favipiravir group and 14.7 days in the placebo group, with a significant difference (p = 0.0136). Favipiravir-treated patients with known risk factors such as obesity or coexisting conditions provided better effects. Furthermore, patients with early-onset in the favipiravir group showed higher odds ratio. No deaths were documented. Although adverse events in the favipiravir group were predominantly transient, the incidence was significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested favipiravir may be one of options for moderate COVID-19 pneumonia treatment. However, the risk of adverse events, including hyperuricemia, should be carefully considered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.jp number: JapicCTI-205238.

3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab282, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320321

ABSTRACT

Background: Detailed differences in clinical information between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia (CP), which is the main phenotype of SARS-CoV-2 disease, and influenza pneumonia (IP) are still unclear. Methods: A prospective, multicenter cohort study was conducted by including patients with CP who were hospitalized between January and June 2020 and a retrospective cohort of patients with IP hospitalized from 2009 to 2020. We compared the clinical presentations and studied the prognostic factors of CP and IP. Results: Compared with the IP group (n = 66), in the multivariate analysis, the CP group (n = 362) had a lower percentage of patients with underlying asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P < .01), lower neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P < .01), lower systolic blood pressure (P < .01), higher diastolic blood pressure (P < .01), lower aspartate aminotransferase level (P < .05), higher serum sodium level (P < .05), and more frequent multilobar infiltrates (P < .05). The diagnostic scoring system based on these findings showed excellent differentiation between CP and IP (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.889). Moreover, the prognostic predictors were different between CP and IP. Conclusions: Comprehensive differences between CP and IP were revealed, highlighting the need for early differentiation between these 2 pneumonias in clinical settings.

4.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 10(10): 1161-1170, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320090

ABSTRACT

The antiretroviral drug favipiravir (FPV) inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. It has been developed for the treatment of the novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, its pharmacokinetics in patients with COVID-19 is poorly understood. In this study, we measured FPV serum concentration by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and conducted population pharmacokinetic analysis. A total of 39 patients were enrolled in the study: 33 were administered FPV 1600 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) on the first day followed by 600 mg b.i.d., and 6 were administered FPV 1800 mg b.i.d. on the first day followed by 800 mg or 600 mg b.i.d. The median age was 68 years (range, 27-89 years), 31 (79.5%) patients were men, median body surface area (BSA) was 1.72 m2 (range, 1.11-2.2 m2 ), and 10 (25.6%) patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) at the start of FPV. A total of 204 serum concentrations were available for pharmacokinetic analysis. A one-compartment model with first-order elimination was used to describe the pharmacokinetics. The estimated mean clearance/bioavailability (CL/F) and distribution volume/bioavailability (V/F) were 5.11 L/h and 41.6 L, respectively. Covariate analysis revealed that CL/F was significantly related to dosage, IMV use, and BSA. A simulation study showed that the 1600 mg/600 mg b.i.d. regimen was insufficient for the treatment of COVID-19 targeting the 50% effective concentration (9.7 µg/mL), especially in patients with larger BSA and/or IMV. A higher FPV dosage is required for COVID-19, but dose-dependent nonlinear pharmacokinetics may cause an unexpected significant pharmacokinetic change and drug toxicity. Further studies are warranted to explore the optimal FPV regimen.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amides/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/blood , Chromatography, Liquid , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Pyrazines/pharmacokinetics , Retrospective Studies , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Treatment Outcome
5.
Cytokine ; 148: 155618, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory disease; approximately 5% of patients developing severe COVID-19. It is known that cytokine release is associated with disease severity, but the relationship between the different clinical phenotypes and inflammatory endotypes is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between inflammatory biomarker-based endotypes and severe COVID-19 phenotypes. METHODS: Interleukin (IL) -6, C-reactive protein (CRP), C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL) 9, IL-18, C-C motif chemokine (CCL) 3, CCL17, IL-10, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in 57 COVID-19 patients, and their association with clinical characteristics was examined using a cluster analysis. RESULTS: Significantly higher blood levels of the eight inflammatory markers were noted in patients who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) than in those who did not develop ARDS (non-ARDS). Using a cluster analysis, the patient groups were classified into four clusters, of which two had patients with high IL-6 and CRP levels. In the cluster with high levels of Type 1 (T1) inflammatory markers such as CXCL9 and IL-18, 85% of the patients had ARDS, 65% of the patients developed acute kidney injury (AKI), and 78% of the patients developed pulmonary fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: In the cluster with high levels of T1 inflammatory markers, the patients frequently suffered from tissue damage, manifested as ARDS and AKI. Our findings identified distinct T1 inflammatory endotypes of COVID-19 and suggest the importance of controlling inflammation by monitoring T1 biomarkers and treating accordingly to limit the severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Inflammation/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cluster Analysis , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/complications , Lung Compliance , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Fibrosis/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Cell ; 184(13): 3452-3466.e18, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240207

ABSTRACT

Antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the effects of antibodies against other spike protein domains are largely unknown. Here, we screened a series of anti-spike monoclonal antibodies from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and found that some of antibodies against the N-terminal domain (NTD) induced the open conformation of RBD and thus enhanced the binding capacity of the spike protein to ACE2 and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2. Mutational analysis revealed that all of the infectivity-enhancing antibodies recognized a specific site on the NTD. Structural analysis demonstrated that all infectivity-enhancing antibodies bound to NTD in a similar manner. The antibodies against this infectivity-enhancing site were detected at high levels in severe patients. Moreover, we identified antibodies against the infectivity-enhancing site in uninfected donors, albeit at a lower frequency. These findings demonstrate that not only neutralizing antibodies but also enhancing antibodies are produced during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10727, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238019

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids use in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial, especially in mild to severe patients who do not require invasive/noninvasive ventilation. Moreover, many factors remain unclear regarding the appropriate use of corticosteroids for COVID-19. In this context, this multicenter, retrospective, propensity score-matched study was launched to evaluate the efficacy of systemic corticosteroid administration for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 ranging in the degree of severity from mild to critically-ill disease. This multicenter, retrospective study enrolled consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients diagnosed January-April 2020 across 30 institutions in Japan. Clinical outcomes were compared for COVID-19 patients who received or did not receive corticosteroids, after adjusting for propensity scores. The primary endpoint was the odds ratio (OR) for improvement on a 7-point ordinal score on Day 15. Of 1092 COVID-19 patients analyzed, 118 patients were assigned to either the corticosteroid and non-corticosteroid group, after propensity score matching. At baseline, most patients did not require invasive/noninvasive ventilation (85.6% corticosteroid group vs. 89.8% non-corticosteroid group). The odds of improvement in a 7-point ordinal score on Day 15 was significantly lower for the corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (OR, 0.611; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.388-0.962; p = 0.034). The time to improvement in radiological findings was significantly shorter in the corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.758; 95% CI, 1.323-2.337; p < 0.001), regardless of baseline clinical status. The duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was shorter in corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (HR, 1.466; 95% CI, 0.841-2.554; p = 0.177). Of the 106 patients who received methylprednisolone, the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the pulse/semi-pulse versus standard dose group (HR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.347-5.950; p = 0.006). In conclusion, corticosteroids for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 did not improve clinical status on Day 15, but reduced the time to improvement in radiological findings for all patients regardless of disease severity and also reduced the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation in patients who required intubation.Trial registration: This study was registered in the University hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry on April 21, 2020 (ID: UMIN000040211).


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
8.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(12)2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939841

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is an oral broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is approved for treatment of influenza in Japan. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial of favipiravir for the treatment of COVID-19 at 25 hospitals across Japan. Eligible patients were adolescents and adults admitted with COVID-19 who were asymptomatic or mildly ill and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to early or late favipiravir therapy (in the latter case, the same regimen starting on day 6 instead of day 1). The primary endpoint was viral clearance by day 6. The secondary endpoint was change in viral load by day 6. Exploratory endpoints included time to defervescence and resolution of symptoms. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 69 were virologically evaluable. Viral clearance occurred within 6 days in 66.7% and 56.1% of the early and late treatment groups (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.76 to 2.62). Of 30 patients who had a fever (≥37.5°C) on day 1, times to defervescence were 2.1 days and 3.2 days in the early and late treatment groups (aHR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.81 to 4.35). During therapy, 84.1% developed transient hyperuricemia. Favipiravir did not significantly improve viral clearance as measured by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) by day 6 but was associated with numerical reduction in time to defervescence. Neither disease progression nor death occurred in any of the patients in either treatment group during the 28-day participation. (This study has been registered with the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials under number jRCTs041190120.).


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Hyperuricemia/diagnosis , Hyperuricemia/physiopathology , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Random Allocation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Secondary Prevention/organization & administration , Severity of Illness Index , Time-to-Treatment/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome
9.
Clin Transl Sci ; 13(5): 880-885, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436861

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) infection has been rapidly spreading worldwide and causing the respiratory illness, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The antiretroviral drug favipiravir (FPV) has been experimentally used for COVID-19 treatment since March 2020 in Japan. However, the pharmacokinetics of FPV in critically ill patients is unknown. We measured the serum concentration of FPV using high-performance liquid chromatography in patients with severe COVID-19 who were admitted to the intensive care unit and placed on mechanical ventilation. The patients were administered 1,600 mg of FPV twice daily on day 1, followed by 600 mg twice daily from day 2 to day 5 (or more if needed). Suspensions of FPV tablets were administered through a nasogastric tube. Seven patients were enrolled in this study. Forty-nine blood samples were obtained from the eligible patients to evaluate FPV concentration. The FPV trough (after 8-12 hours) concentrations of most samples were lower than the lower limit of quantification (1 µg/mL) and half-maximal effective concentration (9.7 µg/mL) against SARS-CoV-2 previously tested in vitro. FPV trough concentration in critically ill patients was much lower than that of healthy subjects in a previous clinical trial, which is a cause for great concern. Further study is required to determine the optimal strategy for treatment of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amides/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pyrazines/pharmacokinetics , Adult , Aged , Amides/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Intubation, Gastrointestinal , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Suspensions , Tablets , Treatment Outcome
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