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1.
Vaccine ; 40(19): 2652-2655, 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764021

ABSTRACT

To evaluate vaccine-induced humoral and cell-mediated immunity at 6 months after completion of two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination, immunoglobulin G against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP IgG), 50% neutralizing antibody (NT50), and spot-forming cell (SFC) counts were evaluated by interferon-γ releasing ELISpot assay of 98 healthy subjects (median age, 43 years). The geometric mean titers of SP IgG and NT50 decreased from 95.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 79.8-113.4) to 5.7 (95% CI 4.9-6.7) and from 680.4 (588.0-787.2) to 130.4 (95% CI 104.2-163.1), respectively, at 3 weeks and 6 months after the vaccination. SP IgG titer was negatively correlated with age and alcohol consumption. Spot-forming cell counts at 6 months did not correlate with age, gender, and other parameters of the patients. SP IgG, NT50, and SFC titers were elevated in the breakthrough infected subjects. Although the levels of vaccine-induced antibodies dramatically declined at 6 months after vaccination, a certain degree of cellular immunity was observed irrespective of the age.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322550

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been difficult to distinguish between mild, moderate, and severe cases at an early stage for COVID-19 patients, making it challenging to decide an optimized treatment for each patient. This machine learning system could predict the clinical course and be used to develop a novel method to provide optimal treatment based on risk. Method: We applied machine learning techniques to international clinical data from a large cohort of patients with COVID-19 at 15 hospitals in Japan and three hospitals in New York City from January 1, 2020 to March 30, 2021. We analyzed clinical information of over 2000 COVID-19 patients comprising various races and ethnicities and built a severity and mortality prediction model. Furthermore, using a severity index with machine learning allowed early detection of patients most at-risk for developing severe illness to support the decision for the patient to receive optimized therapy. Findings: We developed an international COVID-19 early prediction model for use at the time of hospital admission that predicts disease severity and mortality with high accuracy, 0.88 (AUC). Using the novel method of severity-matched analysis to assess treatment effectiveness, in the high-risk group, the Kaplan–Meier estimates of mortality by Day 30 were 26% in the dexamethasone treatment group and 63% in the non-treatment group. The Kaplan–Meier estimates of mortality were low at 3% with remdesivir and dexamethasone in combination and 49% with no remdesivir and dexamethasone treatment by Day 30. There may be an add-on effect of remdesivir to conventional dexamethasone. Interpretation: The severity prediction index can be calculated, which can assist with an optimized treatment for COVID-19 patients in each risk group. The severity-matched treatment system could support the recommendation of optimized treatments, such as dexamethasone, remdesivir, or heparin, in high-risk groups by calculating the severity index predicted at the time of the first visit.Trial Registration Details: The trial registration number was 2020142NI. Funding Information: K.T., K.I., and Y.D. received funding from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) (19fk0108153h0001). K.T. received funding from AMED (19jm0610015h0001). K.T. received funding from the Healthy Longevity Global Grand Challenge, Catalyst Award.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests. Ethics Approval Statement: The study protocol was centrally reviewed by the Institutional Review Board of Tokyo University. The requirement for consent was waived given the retrospective and non-interventional nature of the study.

3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 690006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686556

ABSTRACT

Background: Epidemiological contact tracing is a powerful tool to rapidly detect SARS-CoV-2 infection in persons with a close contact history with COVID-19-affected patients. However, it remains unclear whom and when should be PCR tested among the close contact subjects. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 817 close contact subjects, including 144 potentially SARS-CoV-2-infected persons. The patient characteristics and contact type, duration between the date of the close contact and specimen sampling, and PCR test results in PCR positive and negative persons were compared. Results: We found that male gender {adjusted odds ratio 1.747 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.180-2.608]}, age ≥ 60 [1.749 (95% CI 1.07-2.812)], and household contact [2.14 (95% CI 1.388-3.371)] are independent risk factors for close contact SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptomatic subjects were predicted 6.179 (95% CI 3.985-9.61) times more likely to be infected compared to asymptomatic ones. We could observe PCR test positivity between days 1 and 17 after close contact. However, no subject could be found with a Ct-value <30, considered less infective, after day 14 of close contact. Conclusions: Based on our results, we suggest that contact tracing should be performed on the high-risk subjects between days 3 and 13 after close contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(11): 1639-1642, 2021.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555777

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic until today, but treatment options remain limited. COVID-19 vaccination is expected to decrease the number of patients with COVID-19 worldwide. In Japan, two types of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna), have been approved and administered. However, their side effects remain poorly elucidated. This paper presents two cases of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. Whether or not ITP is triggered by the vaccination or not is difficult to identify. Further investigation with a large number of cases is warranted to clarify the side effects of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 273-278, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Levels of 50% neutralizing titer (NT50) reflect the a vaccine-induced humoral immunity after the vaccination against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Measurements of NT50 are difficult to implement in large quantities. A high-throughput laboratory test is expected for determining the level of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We analyzed samples from 168 Japanese healthcare workers who had completed two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine. We analyzed immunoglobulin G (IgG) index values against spike protein (SP) using automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay system AIA-CL and analyzed the background factors affecting antibody titer. SP IgG index was compared with 50% neutralization titers. RESULTS: The median SP IgG index values of the subjects (mean age = 43 years; 75% female) were 0.1, 1.35, 60.80, and 97.35 before and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the first dose, respectively. At 4 and 6 weeks after the first dose, SP IgG titers were found to have positive correlation with NT50 titer (r = 0.7535 in 4 weeks; r = 0.4376 in 6 weeks). Proportions of the SP IgG index values against the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants compared with the original strain were 2.029, 0.544, 1.017, and 0.6096 respectively. Older age was associated with lower SP IgG titer index 6 weeks after the first dose. CONCLUSIONS: SP IgG index values were rised at 3 weeks after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination and have positive correlation with NT50. SP IgG index values were lower in the older individuals and against Beta and Delta strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
EClinicalMedicine ; 32: 100734, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop an effective vaccine against a novel viral pathogen, it is important to understand the longitudinal antibody responses against its first infection. Here we performed a longitudinal study of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients. METHODS: Sequential blood samples were collected from 39 individuals at various timepoints between 0 and 154 days after onset. IgG or IgM titers to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein were determined by using an ELISA. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured by using a plaque reduction assay. FINDINGS: The IgG titers to the RBD of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein peaked at about 20 days after onset, gradually decreased thereafter, and were maintained for several months after onset. Extrapolation modeling analysis suggested that the IgG antibodies were maintained for this amount of time because the rate of reduction slowed after 30 days post-onset. IgM titers to the RBD decreased rapidly and disappeared in some individuals after 90 days post-onset. All patients, except one, possessed neutralizing antibodies against authentic SARS-CoV-2, which they retained at 90 days after onset. The highest antibody titers in patients with severe infections were higher than those in patients with mild or moderate infections, but the decrease in antibody titer in the severe infection cohort was more remarkable than that in the mild or moderate infection cohort. INTERPRETATION: Although the number of patients is limited, our results show that the antibody response against the first SARS-CoV-2 infection in symptomatic patients is typical of that observed in an acute viral infection. FUNDING: The Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276013

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays a key role in viral infectivity. It is also the major antigen stimulating the host's protective immune response, specifically, the production of neutralizing antibodies. Recently, a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 possessing multiple mutations in the S protein, designated P.1, emerged in Brazil. Here, we characterized a P.1 variant isolated in Japan by using Syrian hamsters, a well-established small animal model for the study of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). In hamsters, the variant showed replicative abilities and pathogenicity similar to those of early and contemporary strains (i.e., SARS-CoV-2 bearing aspartic acid [D] or glycine [G] at position 614 of the S protein). Sera and/or plasma from convalescent patients and BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccinees showed comparable neutralization titers across the P.1 variant, S-614D, and S-614G strains. In contrast, the S-614D and S-614G strains were less well recognized than the P.1 variant by serum from a P.1-infected patient. Prior infection with S-614D or S-614G strains efficiently prevented the replication of the P.1 variant in the lower respiratory tract of hamsters upon reinfection. In addition, passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies to hamsters infected with the P.1 variant or the S-614G strain led to reduced virus replication in the lower respiratory tract. However, the effect was less pronounced against the P.1 variant than the S-614G strain. These findings suggest that the P.1 variant may be somewhat antigenically different from the early and contemporary strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , X-Ray Microtomography
10.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245294, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021678

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychological effects of the COVID-19 outbreak and associated factors on hospital workers at the beginning of the outbreak with a large disease cluster on the Diamond Princess cruise ship. This cross-sectional, survey-based study collected demographic data, mental health measurements, and stress-related questionnaires from workers in 2 hospitals in Yokohama, Japan, from March 23, 2020, to April 6, 2020. The prevalence rates of general psychological distress and event-related distress were assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the 22-item Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), respectively. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the 26-item stress-related questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with mental health outcomes for workers both at high- and low-risk for infection of COVID-19. A questionnaire was distributed to 4133 hospital workers, and 2697 (65.3%) valid questionnaires were used for analyses. Overall, 536 (20.0%) were high-risk workers, 944 (35.0%) of all hospital workers showed general distress, and 189 (7.0%) demonstrated event-related distress. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that 'Feeling of being isolated and discriminated' was associated with both the general and event-related distress for both the high- and low-risk workers. In this survey, not only high-risk workers but also low-risk workers in the hospitals admitting COVID-19 patients reported experiencing psychological distress at the beginning of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Hotspot , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Ships , Young Adult
11.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(8): 865-869, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245541

ABSTRACT

We investigated the clinical course of individuals with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who were transferred from the Diamond Princess cruise ship to 12 local hospitals. The conditions and clinical courses of patients with pneumonia were compared with those of patients without pneumonia. Among 70 patients (median age: 67 years) analyzed, the major symptoms were fever (64.3%), cough (54.3%), and general fatigue (24.3%). Forty-three patients (61.4%) had pneumonia. Higher body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate as well as higher of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and lower serum albumin level and lymphocyte count were associated with the presence of pneumonia. Ground-glass opacity was found in 97.7% of the patients with pneumonia. Patients were administered neuraminidase inhibitors (20%), lopinavir/ritonavir (32.9%), and ciclesonide inhalation (11.4%). Mechanical ventilation and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was performed on 14 (20%) and 2 (2.9%) patients, respectively; two patients died. The median duration of intubation was 12 days. The patients with COVID-19 transferred to local hospitals during the outbreak had severe conditions and needed close monitoring. The severity of COVID-19 depends on the presence of pneumonia. High serum LDH, AST and CRP levels and low serum albumin level and lymphocyte count were found to be predictors of pneumonia. It was challenging for local hospitals to admit and treat these patients during the outbreak of COVID-19. Assessment of severity was crucial to manage a large number of patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Complications/complications , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Ships
12.
Jpn J Radiol ; 38(5): 391-393, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-9202

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) causes a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China. It spread rapidly and globally. CT imaging is helpful for the evaluation of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Infection control inside the CT suites is also important to prevent hospital-related transmission of COVID-19. We present our experience with infection control protocol for COVID-19 inside the CT suites.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Radiology Department, Hospital/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/standards
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