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1.
Thromb J ; 19(1): 55, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonitis associated with severe respiratory failure is associated with high mortality. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is associated with microembolism or microvascular endothelial injuries. Here, we report that syndecan-1 (SDC-1), a component of the endothelial glycocalyx, may be a biomarker of severity classification for COVID-19 related to endothelial injury. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We analyzed the data of COVID-19 patients for 1 year from February 2020 at Yokohama City University Hospital and Yokohama City University Medical Center Hospital. We selected COVID-19 patients who required admission care, including intensive care, and analyzed the classification of severe and critical COVID-19 retrospectively, using various clinical data and laboratory data with SDC-1 by ELISA. RESULTS: We analyzed clinical and laboratory data with SDC-1 in five severe COVID-19 and ten critical COVID-19 patients. In the two groups, their backgrounds were almost the same. In laboratory data, the LDH, CHE, and CRP levels showed significant differences in each group (P = 0.032, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.007, respectively) with no significant differences in coagulation-related factors (platelet, PT-INR, d-dimer, ISTH score; P = 0.200, 0.277, 0.655, and 0.36, respectively). For the clinical data, the SOFA score was significantly different from admission day to day 14 of admission (p < 0.0001). The SDC-1 levels of critical COVID-19 patients were significantly higher on admission day and all-time course compared with the levels of severe COVID-19 patients (P = 0.009 and P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Temporal change of SDC-1 levels closely reflect the severity of COVID-19, therefore, SDC-1 may be a therapeutic target and a biomarker for the severity classification of Covid-19.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic rapidly increases the use of mechanical ventilation (MV). Such cases further require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and have a high mortality. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify prognostic biomarkers pathophysiologically reflecting future deterioration of COVID-19. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and outcome data were collected from 102 patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. Interleukin (IL)-6 level and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA copy number in plasma were assessed with ELISA kit and quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Twelve patients died or required ECMO owing to acute respiratory distress syndrome despite the use of MV. Among various variables, a ratio of oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2), IL-6, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA on admission before intubation were strongly predictive of fatal outcomes after the MV use. Moreover, among these variables, combining SpO2/FiO2, IL-6, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA showed the highest accuracy (area under the curve: 0.934). In patients with low SpO2/FiO2 (< 261), fatal event-rate after the MV use at the 30-day was significantly higher in patients with high IL-6 (> 49 pg/mL) and SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia (> 1.5 copies/µL) compared to those with high IL-6 or RNAaemia or without high IL-6 and RNAaemia (88% vs. 22% or 8%, log-rank test P = 0.0097 or P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Combining SpO2/FiO2 with high IL-6 and SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia which reflect hyperinflammation and viral overload allows accurately and before intubation identifying COVID-19 patients at high risk for ECMO use or in-hospital death despite the use of MV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load
3.
Thromb J ; 19(1): 26, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonitis associated with severe respiratory failure has a high mortality rate. Based on recent reports, the most severely ill patients present with coagulopathy, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-like massive intravascular clot formation is frequently observed. Coagulopathy has emerged as a significant contributor to thrombotic complications. Although recommendations have been made for anticoagulant use for COVID-19, no guidelines have been specified. We describe four cases of critical COVID-19 with thrombosis detected by enhanced CT scan. The CT findings of all cases demonstrated typical findings of COVID-19 and pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombus without critical exacerbation. Two patients died of respiratory failure due to COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Previous reports have suggested coagulopathy with thrombotic signs as the main pathological feature of COVID-19, but no previous reports have focused on coagulopathy evaluated by whole-body enhanced CT scan. Changes in hemostatic biomarkers, represented by an increase in D-dimer and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, indicated that the essence of coagulopathy was massive fibrin formation. Although there were no clinical symptoms related to their prognosis, critical COVID-19-induced systemic thrombus formation was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic dose anticoagulants should be considered for critical COVID-19 because of induced coagulopathy, and aggressive follow-up by whole body enhanced CT scan for systemic venous thromboembolism (VTE) is necessary.

6.
Acute Med Surg ; 7(1): e536, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-660193

ABSTRACT

Aim: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has accelerated all over the world, and global health-care systems have become overwhelmed with potentially infectious patients seeking testing and care. It is essential to set up effective and useful zoning to prevent the spread of infection to and from medical staff or other patients with effective use of standard precautions with personal protective equipment (PPE). Methods: We repurposed a general ward into an acute care unit for severe COVID-19 patients taking into consideration airflow, the direction of movement of medical staff, and prevention of the spread of infection to medical staff and other patients. We checked the daily condition and body temperature of all medical staff for 60 days. Results: There was no evidence of COVID-19 infection in any medical staff or other patients during the period thanks to effective and useful zoning with PPE. Conclusion: Special wards and rooms should be set up for future protection of medical staff and other patients, and prevent the explosion of COVID-19 infection with effective and useful zoning with PPE.

8.
Jpn J Radiol ; 38(5): 391-393, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-9202

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) causes a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China. It spread rapidly and globally. CT imaging is helpful for the evaluation of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Infection control inside the CT suites is also important to prevent hospital-related transmission of COVID-19. We present our experience with infection control protocol for COVID-19 inside the CT suites.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Radiology Department, Hospital/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/standards
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