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2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 32: 100734, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop an effective vaccine against a novel viral pathogen, it is important to understand the longitudinal antibody responses against its first infection. Here we performed a longitudinal study of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients. METHODS: Sequential blood samples were collected from 39 individuals at various timepoints between 0 and 154 days after onset. IgG or IgM titers to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein were determined by using an ELISA. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured by using a plaque reduction assay. FINDINGS: The IgG titers to the RBD of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein peaked at about 20 days after onset, gradually decreased thereafter, and were maintained for several months after onset. Extrapolation modeling analysis suggested that the IgG antibodies were maintained for this amount of time because the rate of reduction slowed after 30 days post-onset. IgM titers to the RBD decreased rapidly and disappeared in some individuals after 90 days post-onset. All patients, except one, possessed neutralizing antibodies against authentic SARS-CoV-2, which they retained at 90 days after onset. The highest antibody titers in patients with severe infections were higher than those in patients with mild or moderate infections, but the decrease in antibody titer in the severe infection cohort was more remarkable than that in the mild or moderate infection cohort. INTERPRETATION: Although the number of patients is limited, our results show that the antibody response against the first SARS-CoV-2 infection in symptomatic patients is typical of that observed in an acute viral infection. FUNDING: The Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

3.
Cureus ; 13(8): e17231, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372153

ABSTRACT

Background and objective Due to the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the Japanese Society of Respiratory Endoscopy recommended the omission of throat anesthesia using Jackson's spray prior to bronchoscopy for preventing aerosol generation. In this survey, we investigated the tolerability of patients toward the omission of anesthesia using Jackson's spray before bronchoscopy. Methods Group A patients received throat anesthesia with 5 mL of 4% lidocaine using Jackson's spray prior to bronchoscopy and were then administered pethidine hydrochloride and midazolam intravenously. Group B patients did not receive anesthesia using Jackson's spray before bronchoscopy. They were administered pethidine hydrochloride and midazolam and were then administered 8% lidocaine several times into the pharynx. A patient distress questionnaire, classified as a five-graded score, was administered to each group after bronchoscopy. Results Seventy patients participated in this study: 39 patients in Group A and 31 patients in Group B. There were no significant differences in their backgrounds. In the questionnaire survey, the distress caused by pre-examination anesthesia in Group A was significantly higher than in Group B (3.03 ± 1.25 vs. 1.23 ± 0.62; p < 0.0001), and no significant differences were observed in the other questions during bronchoscopy. Conclusion This study demonstrates the tolerability of patients toward the omission of throat anesthesia using Jackson's spray prior to bronchoscopy, which is recommended for preventing infection, including COVID-19.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276013

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays a key role in viral infectivity. It is also the major antigen stimulating the host's protective immune response, specifically, the production of neutralizing antibodies. Recently, a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 possessing multiple mutations in the S protein, designated P.1, emerged in Brazil. Here, we characterized a P.1 variant isolated in Japan by using Syrian hamsters, a well-established small animal model for the study of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). In hamsters, the variant showed replicative abilities and pathogenicity similar to those of early and contemporary strains (i.e., SARS-CoV-2 bearing aspartic acid [D] or glycine [G] at position 614 of the S protein). Sera and/or plasma from convalescent patients and BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccinees showed comparable neutralization titers across the P.1 variant, S-614D, and S-614G strains. In contrast, the S-614D and S-614G strains were less well recognized than the P.1 variant by serum from a P.1-infected patient. Prior infection with S-614D or S-614G strains efficiently prevented the replication of the P.1 variant in the lower respiratory tract of hamsters upon reinfection. In addition, passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies to hamsters infected with the P.1 variant or the S-614G strain led to reduced virus replication in the lower respiratory tract. However, the effect was less pronounced against the P.1 variant than the S-614G strain. These findings suggest that the P.1 variant may be somewhat antigenically different from the early and contemporary strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , X-Ray Microtomography
5.
Keio J Med ; 70(2): 44-50, 2021 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183786

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequencing of samples from COVID-19 patients is useful for informing infection control. Datasets of these genomes assembled from multiple hospitals can give critical clues to regional or national trends in infection. Herein, we report a lineage summary based on data collected from hospitals located in the Tokyo metropolitan area. We performed SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequencing of specimens from 198 patients with COVID-19 at 13 collaborating hospitals located in the Kanto region. Phylogenetic analysis and fingerprinting of the nucleotide substitutions were performed to differentiate and classify the viral lineages. More than 90% of the identified strains belonged to Clade 20B, which has been prevalent in European countries since March 2020. Only two lineages (B.1.1.284 and B.1.1.214) were found to be predominant in Japan. However, one sample from a COVID-19 patient admitted to a hospital in the Kanto region in November 2020 belonged to the B.1.346 lineage of Clade 20C, which has been prevalent in the western United States since November 2020. The patient had no history of overseas travel or any known contact with anyone who had travelled abroad. Consequently, the Clade 20C strain belonging to the B.1.346 lineage appeared likely to have been imported from the western United States to Japan across the strict quarantine barrier. B.1.1.284 and B.1.1.214 lineages were found to be predominant in the Kanto region, but a single case of the B.1.346 lineage of clade 20C, probably imported from the western United States, was also identified. These results illustrate that a decentralized network of hospitals offers significant advantages as a highly responsive system for monitoring regional molecular epidemiologic trends.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , Humans , Phylogeny
6.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21250798

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesWhole SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing from COVID-19 patients is useful for infection control and regional trends evaluation. We report a lineage data collected from hospitals in the Kanto region of Japan. MethodsWe performed whole genome sequencing in specimens of 198 COVID-19 patients at 13 collaborating hospitals in the Kanto region. Phylogenetic analysis and fingerprinting of the nucleotide substitutions underwent to differentiate and classify the viral lineages. ResultsMore than 90% of the strains belonged to Clade 20B and two lineages (B.1.1.284 and B.1.1.214) have been detected predominantly in the Kanto region. However, one sample from a COVID-19 patient in November 2020, belonged to the B.1.346 lineage of Clade 20C, which has been prevalent in western United States. The patient had no history of overseas travel and no contact with anyone who had travelled abroad, suggesting that this strain appeared likely to have been imported from western United States, across the strict quarantine barrier. ConclusionB.1.1.284 and B.1.1.214 have been identified predominantly in the Kanto region and B.1.346 of clade 20C in one patient was probably imported from western United States. These results illustrate that a decentralized network of hospitals can be significantly advantageous for monitoring regional molecular epidemiologic trends. Highlights{middle dot} Whole SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing is useful for infection control {middle dot} B.1.1.284 and B.1.1.214 have been identified predominantly in the Kanto region {middle dot} B.1.346 of Clade 20C was detected in one COVID-19 patient in November {middle dot} Molecular genomic data sharing provides benefits to public health against COVID-19

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